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Due to human activities, development, construction and modernization, the ecosystem of Terai region has been adversely affected.
Some of the efforts and mitigating measures are as follows.
The density of population is high in this region.In this area people depend upon the forest materials and agricultural protection. They destroy forest for cultivation and settlement. The dense forest of Terai is being destroyed gradually which brings more probability of depletion of forest in near future. The awareness programme should be conducted to preserve forest. People should also participate in the plantation and conservation programmes.
Agricultural activities are more in Terai region because of fertile land. The farmers use chemical fertilizer for more and better production. The fertility of land of Terai has begun to diminish due of flood, landslide and over encroachment of human activities.
The use of chemical and fertilizer should be minimized, the soil erosion of the hill should be checked and people should be made aware about the land conservation to protect the land of the Terai region.
The livestock farming such as cattle and goat for milk, meat, manure and other purposes have also been done in this region. People take cattle in forest and pasture to graze. The forest and pasture are depleting due to overgrazing.
Animals should not be allowed to graze freely because they destroy the young and valuable plants. Positive attitude towards conservation of ecosystem should be developed to protect the environment.
The construction work is rapidly increasing in this region. It disturbs the natural environment. Construction works have also disturbed the lifestyle of wildlife and birds. The road, dam, canal etc. are the construction works that directly affect the ecosystem.
The rational attitude should be developed while conducting the construction works. The construction work should be eco-friendly.
Terai is rich in raw materials. All types of raw materials required for the industry are available here. Different types of industries like jute industry, sugar industry, paper industry etc are established here. These industries emit smoke, harmful gases, chemical etc. and pollute the environment.
The industries should be managed properly. Wastage and sewage from industries should be treated carefully before discharging to the land and water resources.
Modernization and developmental activities are the necessity of life. It makes our life easier, more comfortable and safer. Modernization and development without environmental conservation is harmful to us in the long term.
Therefore, the following measures should be considered to minimize the adverse effects of modernization and development:
Terai region is situated at the altitude of 60 to 610 meters from the sea level and it expanded from east to west on the southern part of Nepal. This area covers about 17% of total land of Nepal. This region has plain land with warm and humid climate. There are 20 districts of Nepal in this region. This region can be divided into 3 sub-regions: Inner Terai, Bhabar Terai and Main Terai. Each sub-region has its own type of ecosystem.
Terai region has extensive forest of sal, sisau, khayar, bamboo, peopal etc. The Bhabar region has thick forest. Tigers, leopards, rhino, elephants, deer, vulture, eagle, etc. are common in this forest. Fish, crocodiles are found in rivers, lakes and ponds. The four adverse effects on ecosystem of Terai Region are: