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Low quality of life means to decrease living standard in the absence of basic needs as well as social, cultural, emotional and spiritual needs. Low quality of life means poor living standard of life.
Effects of low quality of life
Advantage of quality of life
The size of the family directly affects the quality life and family life. It determines the need and necessities of family members. Quality of life is only possible when the needs and necessities of each family member are fulfilled. If the means and resources are according to the size of the family, it will not be difficult to fulfill the basic as well as additional needs.
It is one of the important elements to maintain quality of life. The parents should make great effort to give timely, qualitative and applied education to their children. It helps to raise the standard of the family by long-term achievement. The skilled person with the quality education can translate the contemporary knowledge, skill and competency in his behavioral life appropriately. As a result, person can upgrade the living standard by involving in quick and easy income-generating activities.
The appropriate age of marriage is after 20 years. Due to the delayed marriage, first child birth will also be delayed. Few and desired number of children will born and the health of mother and child will be better. It also helps to select suitable life partner for marriage due to maturity in age before marriage. As a result, family life becomes happy and quality of life is formed.
The first child delivery should take place after 20 years of age. Then, on the one hand, the mother’s health remains unharmed and, on the other hand, the couples have adequate time to enjoy conjugal life as they become well matured. The couple becomes able to think, analyze and decide about family size. Therefore, it helps to maintain the quality of life of the family.
A couple should adopt appropriate birth spacing. There should be an interval of at least 4 or 5 years between 2 consecutive births which helps to maintain the size of the family and also the health of the mother. So, birth spacing helps to raise the level of quality of life.
Family health plays significant role for economic and social development of a family. Nutritious foods and balanced diet, basic health services and facilities, etc. are necessary for a person to be healthy. Another aspect to be healthy is personal and community sanitation. If we keep our house, courtyard, street, and public places neat and clean, our surrounding environment stays fresh, clean and green. As a result, family members becomes healthy and active, Then, quality of life is achieved.
Nutritious food is necessary for all family members of the family. It helps for the physical, mental and intellectual development. The lack of nutritious food leads towards malnutrition. Therefore, every member of the family should regularly have balanced diet and nutritious foods.
Gender equality has its own separate position for quality of life. Because of gender inequality in our society, gender bias for son and daughters till the son is born. This wrong tendency has increased the size of the family. Therefore, every conscious person should develop same attitude of gender equity. The concept of gender equity makes the family life happy and makes domestic environment peace, beautiful and cordial. Then the quality of life is further improved. Therefore, each and every couple should believe the gender equality for the quality of life.
If parents understand and bear their responsibilities to children, the quality of life is built in the family. These responsibilities consist of rearing, caressing and educating children. They have to keep children healthy and treat them well. If parents bear their responsibilities sincerely, the children grow as the good and capable members of the family and the quality of life is made.
Saving is also an effort to build the quality of life of the family. Everyone should pay something from his or her income. Money, thus, gathered should be invested in some income-generating activities. This will increase the income of the family. Then, there will be no shortage of money for fulfilling basic needs and other aspirations in the need. In this way, saving plays a significant role in creating quality of life.
Fulfillment of basic needs is one the indicators of measuring the quality life of human being. The fulfillment of basic needs has been taken as an indicator of economic development and quality life in 1970. Economic and social status increase through economic development and improve the quality life that one can fulfill his basic needs. Thus, basic needs are regarded as one of the bases of quality life. The fulfillment of basic needs was aimed in the sixth five yearly plan (1980- 85 AD) in Nepal for the first time.
The following needs must be ensured to fulfill under the basic need oriented approach:
Physical quality life index (PQLI) is considered as an indicator or measure quality life. It is passed on the aspect of human welfare and social service rather than per capital income of an individual.
The major basis to measure the physical quality life indexes are as follows:
These are jointly used to find out the status of nations on the basis of 0 to 100 points. The large number indicates better quality life.
Human development report has been published on the basis of Human Development Index (HDI) since 1990. In these days the quality life in measured with the help of human development index.
It is based on the following three dimensions:
Production of skilled manpower is an advantage of quality life.
Sanitation helps to maintain healthy family by preventing and controlling various kinds of diseases.
Saving can be used in emergencies for fulfilling family needs of health, food etc. So, it helps in maintaining quality of life.
Two important advantages of proper birth spacing are as follows:
The condition in which women have equal access as man to economic, social, cultural and political opportunities of a family, society and country is known as gender equality. When there is gender equality, there is no discrimination on sex and women are given democratic shares in all areas.
The degree of satisfaction in which one has in relation to the various aspects of human needs is known as quality life. In the past, few people were only educated and lots of people were uneducated. Due to illiteracy, people were unknown about the importance of quality of life and how to make their life qualitative. They were unknown about the method of making scientific equipments and its importance. So, people had to do lots of laborious work. Due to illiteracy, people had very narrow mind, they used to quarrel in very small matter also.
In the past, most of the people were poor, so they could not eat enough nutritious foods and wear clean and good clothes. In the past, people did not use any family planning method and they used to have lots of children. That's why, people of past were less concerned with quality of life.
Various kinds of problem and obstacles are created due to low quality of life in the society. Following are the reasons for dispute due low quality of life:
|Women empowerment||Gender equality|
|Women empowerment means not to confine the women only in domestic affairs but to involve in various social programmes.||Gender equality means equal rights and role of men and women in society, political fields and economic sector.|
|It is directed to uplift the status of women.||It helps to uplift the status of both male and female.|
|In this, women are made equally able as male.||In this, focus on equality & prohibition on discrimination are focused.|
The status of living of the family goes down due to lack of fulfilling the needs. Thus, it becomes difficult to impart education and sanitation to children when the attention is paid only to most urgent needs due to low quality of life of the family. There will be great problem to increase the quality education for the grown up children and young boys and girls.
There is equal role and responsibility of father and mother to maintain the high living standard in a family. For quality of life, all the family members have to be provided with nutritious food, proper sanitation, education, security etc. If the mother of a family is equally participating to maintain a good health and income generating activities, the family will definitely have a quality of life. Therefore, there is equal role of a women in maintain quality of life.
Generally, 25 years of age for male and 20 years of age for female are the proper age for marriage. The marriage conducted before these age is called early marriage whereas the marriage during and after the proper age of marriage is called delayed marriage. Due to delayed marriage, the couple may have opportunities to get necessary education, training and other opportunities of life. The couple would become mature physically and mentally and would be able to make planning for future life, engage in income generating activities, and take care of children's education and health. They will be able to make a small family size by birth spacing. There will be a short period of giving birth of the children. In this way, delayed marriage helps to control the birth rate.
Women empowerment is the effort to provide equal opportunities for female like males in social, economic, and community activities. If women can take part in such types of activities, they will become self-employed. They can develop their career and make them strong. In this way, by women empowerment, the women, covering about 50 %of the total population of the country can be involved effectively in the development of the nation.
Education means knowledge. Education provides the necessary skills and knowledge for life. Educated people will have opportunities of employment anywhere they want. Skilled and educated person will be able to fulfill the needs of the family easily. Educated people can use easily available resources and facilities to make their life happy. Therefore, education is taken as one of the major factor for the quality of life.
The following are the impacts of low quality of life.
About one-third of the women of age 15- 49 in developing country die of illness related of pregnancy, childbirth, abortion, HIV and reproductive tract infection. High level of maternal mortality, and poor material and child health are closely related to low economic status and the lack of access to appropriate health service. Therefore, special attention is needed to balance diet, primary health service and sanitation, proper caring for mother and child health, but such services and facilities are found to be partially managed in family with poor quality of life. This cause high maternal and infant mortality.
The quality of life can be maintained through the collective effort of all family members. It is easy to maintain quality of life in small family. The goal of all families is always to improve the quality of life and live a life happily. As a member, I would contribute in following ways to promote the quality of my family.
As we know, large family size, the large the volume of demands, it is difficult to fulfill even the basic needs if the family size is big. Family members can't get good food, quality education, health facilities etc. In such families, the possibilities of entertainment and recreation are very rare. It results in poor quality of life. But in a small family, every sort of basic and additional needs can be fulfilled easily. Even a low income may be sufficient to fulfill the basic needs. There is also better cooperation along with sharing of love and affection among the members. In this regard, the saying "small family is a happy family" is very popular. Therefore, family size determines the quality of life.
Special care should be given to mother and her newborn baby. They both should be provided with nutritious food, proper health care etc. For a normal and successful birth of a child, mother needs to be provided with balance diet, medical service, proper rest time, and encouraging family support during her pregnancy. But in the family with low quality of life, it is difficult to provide all these things to mother and child. Family member also lacks knowledge about the care of mother and child. They don't know about safe motherhood. All this result in poor care of both mother and child. They suffer from poorer health. In many cases, they have more risks. So, maternal and infant mortality rates are found high in the family with low quality of life. High maternal and infant mortality rates prevent in poor societies prove the fact.