Notes on Some Communicable Diseases | Grade 7 > Health and Physical Education > Diseases | KULLABS.COM

Some Communicable Diseases

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Some of the Communicable Diseases are as follows:

Tetanus

Source:www.microbiologyonline.org.uk
Source:www.microbiologyonline.org.uk
fig: Tetanus

Tetanus is the Communicable diseases caused by ‘ Clostridium tetani’ bacteria. These bacteria are found in soil, dust and animal manure. It enters through the cuts, wounds, and bruises into the body. The diseases are generally caused to the children. A newborn child of umbilical has the high chance of getting tetanus. The different sources of bacteria are rusted weapons and tools, polluted soil, animal faeces etc. The incubation period of tetanus is usually about 8 days.

Symptoms of Tetanus

  • The infant child finds difficulty in sucking and swallowing mother’s milk.
  • Jaw muscles around the molars and teeth become stiff.
  • The body of the infected person stretches and bends backwards like of a bow.
  • The muscle cramp and bone fractures may result in severe cases during bending and stretching of the patient.
  • The muscles in the throat shrink.

Prevention and Control of Tetanus

  • Every child must be vaccinated with D.P.T.
  • Pregnant women should be vaccinated with T.T (Tetanus Toxoid) injection.
  • Avoid children playing with rusted weapons and tools.
  • Keep the bruises, cuts, and wounds away from dirt, dust, and animal manure.
  • Wounds must be cleaned and closed with a clean dressing and antiseptic.
  • If you get cut by the rusted tool or weapon, get vaccinated within 24 hours with T.T. injection.
  • Cut the umbilical cord of the infant by using a sterilized blade or knife.

Diphtheria

Diphtheria is caused by a bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. Diphtheria is a communicable disease which infants the throat of the patient. The patient of the neck swells and voice becomes hoarse. These diseases get communicated through the sputum, cough, droplets, etc. The diseases are transmitted through the medium of air. The incubation period of diphtheria ranges between 2-7 days.

Symptoms of Diphtheria

  • The patient of the throat sore and becomes a difficulty in swallowing.
  • Suffer from a cough and voice becomes hoarse.
  • Fever around 100o F or above with chills and fatigue.
  • Water run from the nose with bloodstained discharge.
  • While swallowing the food the skin at the throat turns blue.

Prevention and Control of Diphtheria

  • The patient should stay in a well-ventilated and sunlight room.
  • P.T Vaccine must be given to the victim for three times.
  • The mucus and oral discharge of the patient should be disposed of by dumping.
  • The clothes, utensils, towels etc. of the patient should be sterilized.
  • Prompt treatment of this diseases is a must to such disease as it is treated easily in health facilities.

Polio

Polio is the disease caused by the virus called poliovirus. It is a contagious disease which is generally caused to the children. This disease is also called infantile paralysis. Polio is transmitted through a cough, mucus, sputum, excreta, etc. This disease leads to the physical disorders. The incubation period of this disease is 6 – 20 days with a maximum of 35 days.

Symptoms of Polio

  • Muscular inflammation and pain.
  • Paralysis related to the limbs.
  • The limbs of the infants become thin and dry.
  • The children and the infected infants will develop lean and weak limbs.
  • The patient may suffer from fever, headache, sore throat and vomiting.

Prevention and Control of Polio

  • Polio diseases can be prevented by vaccinating with polio drops three times within 6 months to 12 months.
  • Never use the belongings of the patients and should be sterilized before it is used again.
  • The excreta of the patient should be disposed of properly.
  • The patient should be sent to the hospital as the onset of the symptoms.

Pneumonia

Source:en.wikipedia.org fig:Pneumonia
Source:en.wikipedia.org
fig:Pneumonia

Pneumonia is the disease caused by bacteria, virus or fungi. Pneumonia is common among children. It is caused by the bacteria called Pneumococcus bacteria. The infection is caused by the nose, ears, throat, food pipe, lungs, and windpipe. The disease gets worse in the presence of dust, dampness, and air pollution. The incubation period of bacterial pneumonia is 1- 3 days.

Symptoms of Pneumonia

  • The patient of cough increases as the days of the infection also increases.
  • Fever increases with shivering chills.
  • Increases in breathing and chest pain.
  • Running nose and pain in the ear.
  • May lead to bronchitis.
  • Difficulty in respiration, wheezing sound while breathing.
  • Swells in the windpipe.
  • The children may die if not treated in time.

Prevention and control of Pneumonia

  • The vaccinations of Influenza are very effective method of preventing pneumonia.
  • The environment must be kept clean and follow sanitary rules.
  • Maintain personal health and hygiene.
  • Stay away from air pollution, dust or allergens.
  • Stay away from cold and dampness.
  • Use a mask for safety.

Kala-azar

Kala azar is the disease caused by protozoa called Leishmania donovani. Kala-azar is associated with fever, loss of appetite, fatigue, enlargement of the liver, and suppression of the bone marrow. Due to the infection of the liver, the bile juice secreted by the liver gets spread throughout the body and the skin turns black. Kala-azar also increases the risk of other secondary infections. Kala azar is mostly found in Terai region. The incubation period of Kala azar is long between 2 weeks to 18 months.

Symptoms of Kala-azar

  • Loss of appetite.
  • Stuffy or a runny nose and nosebleeds.
  • Loss of body weight and weakness.
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Pain in the liver region with slight bulged abdomen.
  • Dryness of skin and finally black pigmentation.
  • Fever that lasts for weeks or months
  • Enlarged spleen
  • The patient suffers from anaemia.
  • If not treated in time, the disease becomes fatal.

Prevention and Control of Kala-azar

  • Wear clothing that covers as much skin as possible.
  • Keep your surroundings clean and hygienic.
  • Spray indoor sleeping areas with insecticide.
  • Sleep on the higher floors of a building.
  • Avoid the outdoors between dusk and dawn. This is when sand flies are most active.
  • When indoors, use screens and air conditioning.
  • Use a bed net while sleeping. Sand flies are much smaller than mosquitos.
  • The patient should be separated and treated.

Malaria

Malaria is a type of blood disease caused by parasites. It can be transmitted to humans through the bite of the anopheles mosquito. If an infected mosquito bites a healthy human. It transmits the parasites, then it multiplies in the liver of the host before infecting and destroying red blood cells. The incubation period of Malaria is usually between 10-15 days. Many people of terai region have been killed by this disease in past and still counting.

Symptoms of Malaria

  • Sensation of cold, shivering, fever, headaches, and vomiting
  • Sweats followed by a return to normal temperature, with tiredness.
  • Fever and chills
  • Impaired consciousness
  • Infection of liver leads to jaundice
  • Multiple convulsions
  • Difficulty in breathing and respiratory distress
  • Bleeding and signs of anemia

Prevention and Control of Malaria

  • The mosquito breeding should be destroyed by sprinkling insecticides or DDT.
  • All the ditches must be a dump before the monsoon.
  • Wear long clothes to protect yourself from mosquito bites.
  • Always seek medical treatment immediately if you develop a fever while travelling a country where malaria occurs.
  • Inform the doctor if you become sick when you travel.
  • Provide appropriate drainage and sewage facility in the community.

HIV and AIDS

Source:screwlife.com fig:HIV/AIDS
Source:screwlife.com
fig:HIV/AIDS

HIV causes AIDS. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It breaks down the immune system that is our body's protection against disease. HIV causes people sick with infections that normally wouldn't affect them. This disease shows the symptoms of other diseases. So, AIDS does not have characteristic symptoms and since it acquires the symptoms of other diseases. HIV/AIDS is highly communicable through the mean of unsafe sexual contact, syringe, infected mother to her infant, blood transfusion etc. HIV/AIDS cannot be cured.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

  • Swollen glands in the throat, or groin.
  • Fever, headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches
  • The decrease of body weight; about 10% of the original body weight.
  • Swelling of the lymph glands in the groin, axilla and armpit.
  • Difficult to treat any infection due to collapsed immune system.
  • The appearance of infections at the sex organs.

Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS

  • Before a blood transfusion, blood screening should be done to detect the presence of HIV.
  • Use a condom during sex and have sex with only one trusted partner.
  • A Pregnant woman suffering from AIDS, should not give birth to the Child.
  • Health awareness programmes and preventive methods should be followed.
  • Do not use the disposable and open syringes, and no condition syringes should be shared.
  • Consider the drug Truvada.
  • Do not inject drugs. Drug users should counsel and do treatment to stop or reduce the drug use.

Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that may be very serious complications when left untreated, but it is simple to cure with the right treatment. It is communicated from one person to another during unsafe sexual disease.Syphilis can also be spread from an infected mother to her unknown baby. It is caused by Treponema pallidum. The incubation period of syphilis is between 10 days to 10 weeks and on an average of 3 weeks.
First stage/symptoms of Syphilis
  • Swelling of lymph glands.
  • The appearance of a hard but painless chancre.
  • Inflammation around genitals.
  • The chancre will disappear within three to six weeks.

Second stage/symptoms of Syphilis

  • A secondary stage occurs 2 to 4 months after infection and lasts several weeks and often comes back in the following 2 years. If proper treatment is done, the patient never shows the symptoms of the second stage.
  • Red rash over the whole body particularly around the lips, hands and feet.
  • Fever, headache, and joint ache.
  • Swelling of liver and spleen.
  • Swelling of eyeballs and secretion of mucus in the eyes.

Third stage/symptoms of Syphilis

  • The third stage may occur in up to 30% of untreated individuals after a latent period which may be many years. The patient may remain in the second stage for years.
  • It affects the functioning of bone, heart, and brain.
  • A large infection appears at cheeks and chin.
  • The patient may lose conscience and mental disorders take place.

Prevention and Control of Syphilis

  • Use Condom during sex and have sex with only one trusted partner.
  • Maintain sexual health and hygiene.
  • Health awarness programme and education regarding syphilis should be given.
  • Newly born babies should be treated immediately.
  • If one of the spouses is infected, both should treat the disease.
  • Penicillin is the drug of choice to treat syphilis.

Gonorrhoea

Gonorrhoea is also one of the sexual transmitted disease. It is communicated through unsafe sexual contact or multiple partner sexual contact. Gonorrhoea is caused by Neisseria gonococcus. This diseases affects people of any sex and age. It affects the urethra of both males and females. The incubation period of Gonorrhoea is 2 to 14 days.

Symptoms of Gonorrhoea

  • Discharge of pus from the penis in men
  • A burning sensation in the penis when urinating.
  • Vaginal discharge in women
  • Discomfort on urination
  • Bleeding between periods, often after having sex.
  • Discharge of yellowish pus at the time of urination.

Prevention and Control of Gonorrhoea

  • Practice safer sex.
  • Maintain good reproductive and sexual health and hygiene.
  • Do not use the belongings of patient unless they are sterilized.
  • Health awarness and education.
  • All sexual partners need to be tested and treated even they have no symptoms.
  • Treat the disease in its primary stage to make the treatment easier.



  • Tetanus is the Communicable diseases caused by ‘ Clostridium tetani’ bacteria.
  • Diphtheria is caused by a bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. It  is a communicable diseases which infants the throat of the patient.
  • Polio is the disease caused by the virus called poliovirus. It is a contagious disease which is generally caused to the children.
  • Pneumonia is the disease caused by bacteria, virus or fungi. It  is common among children.
  • Kala azar is the disease caused by protozoa called Leishmania donovani.
  • Malaria is a life-threatening blood disease caused by parasites. It can be transmitted to humans through the bite of the anopheles mosquito.
.

Very Short Questions

Tetanus is the Communicable diseases caused by ‘ Clostridium tetani’ bacteria. These bacteria are found in soil, dust and animal manure.

The Symptoms of Tetanus are as follows:

  • The infant child finds difficulty in sucking and swallowing mother’s milk.
  • Jaw muscles around the molars and teeth become stiff.
  • The body of the infected person stretches and bends backwards like of a bow.
  • The muscle cramp and bone fractures may result in severe cases during bending and stretching of the patient.
  • The muscles in the throat shrink.

Diphtheria is caused by a bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheria. Diphtheria is a communicable disease which infants the throat of the patient. The patient of the neck swells and voice becomes hoarse. The diseases are transmitted through the medium of air. The incubation period of diphtheria ranges between 2-7 days.

The Symptoms of Diphtheria are as follows:

  • The patient of the throat sore and becomes a difficulty in swallowing.
  • Suffer from a cough and voice becomes hoarse.
  • Fever around 100o F or above with chills and fatigue.
  • Water run from the nose with bloodstained discharge.
  • While swallowing the food the skin at the throat turns blue.

Polio is the disease caused by the virus called poliovirus. It is a contagious disease which is generally caused to the children. Polio is transmitted through a cough, mucus, sputum, excreta, etc. This disease leads to the physical disorders. The incubation period of this disease is 6 – 20 days with a maximum of 35 days.

The Prevention and Control of Polio are as follows:

  • Polio diseases can be prevented by vaccinating with polio drops three times within 6 months to 12 months.
  • Never use the belongings of the patients and should be sterilized before it is used again.
  • The excreta of the patient should be disposed of properly.
  • The patient should be sent to the hospital as the onset of the symptoms.

0%
  • The different sources of____________________ are rusted weapons and tools, polluted soil, animal faeces etc.

    protozoa
    bacteria
    fungi
    virus
  • If you get cut by the rusted tool or weapon, get vaccinated within 24 hours with ______________ . 

    Hepatitis B injection
    T.T. injection.
    polio injection
    D.P.T. injection
  • ___________________ is a communicable disease which infants the throat of the patient.

    Kala-azar
    Diphtheria
    Pneumonia
    Polio
  • Kala azar is mostly found in ______________region.

    Hilly
    Himalayan
    Terai
    Cold
  • The vaccinations of Influenza are very effective method of preventing _______________________ .

    Kala-azar. 
    pneumonia.
    Tetanus. 
    Diphtheria. 
  • Wounds must be cleaned and closed with a clean dressing and antiseptic to prevent from _______________________ . 

    Pneumonia
    polio
    Tetanus
    Diphtheria
  • ________________ is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that may be very serious complications when left untreated

    Polio
    Pneumonia
    Diphtheria
    Syphilis
  • ____________ diseases can be prevented by vaccinating with polio drops three times within 6 months to 12 months.

    Polio
    HIV
    Diphtheria
    Tetanus
  • Malaria can be transmitted to humans through the bite of the anopheles _______________.

    sand flies
    bee
    mosquito
    housfly
  • The incubation period of bacterial pneumonia is ______________ days.

    1- 3
    5-10
    5-7
    2-4
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