Our environment consists of both living and non- living things. Living things include soil, air, water whereas non- living things include plants and animals. Our environment is made up of the physical and biological world. The physical world includes air, soil and water and climatic factors like temperature, pressure, rainfall, sunlight, wind, etc. This all things make our environment. Talking about the biological world, it includes living organisms like plants and animals including human beings and micro- organisms. Our environment is made up of two components. They are described below,
Abiotic components include non- living things of the environment. Water, air, soil, temperature, rainfall, sunlight etc are the abiotic components of the environment. The biotic components of the ecosystem which includes the plants, animals and microbes interact and are dependent on the abiotic factors. Some of the important abiotic components of our environment are discussed below,
Biotic components are the living things of the environment. Plants, animals, and microorganisms are the biotic components of the environment. Biotic components of an environment are classified into three groups. They are given below,
Producers are the autotrophic organisms that can prepare their own food by photosynthesis. Green plants are known as autotrophs as they can prepare their own foods. They prepare their foods using water, minerals and carbon dioxide. Producers provide food to other living organisms that cannot prepare their own food. Animals get their foods from autotrophs.
Consumers are those animals which cannot prepare their own food. They are also known as heterotrophs. Consumers depend on producers directly or indirectly for their food. Consumers are divided into three types. They are the primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer. Primary consumers are those consumers that directly depend on green plants or producers for their foods. Some of the common examples of primary consumers are the cow, deer, sheep, rabbit, goat, etc. Secondary consumers are those consumers that depend on the primary consumer for their food. Cat, fox, fish, dog etc are some of the common examples of secondary consumers. Tertiary consumers are those animals that depend on upon the primary consumers for their food. Some of the common examples of tertiary consumers are a vulture, lion, tiger etc. Carnivores animals are those animals that feed only on the flesh of other animals. Animals like a tiger, lion etc are carnivores animals. Omnivores animals are those animals that feed on both plants and animals. Animals like dog, cat, crow, bear, etc are omnivores animals. Human beings are also omnivores animals. Herbivores animals are those animals that feed on green plants. Primary consumers are herbivores.
The micro-organisms which feed on dead and decaying bodies and transform the organic compounds back into inorganic compound are called decomposers. These inorganic compounds are used by the green plant for their growth. They are also known as saprophytes. Decomposers convert the remains of dead plants and animals into simple substances. Bacteria and Fungi are called decomposers.
Man and environment are inter- related with each other. The environment determines the lifestyle of the humans and the humans modify the environment as per their need. Humans perform all their activities on the environment. They grow, survive and die on the environment. We get oxygen from the airto breathe. We get food and shelter from the land. We get water from different resources of water and use it for drinking, cleaning, washing, irrigation, and many more things. We get timber, fodder, firewood, medicines, clothes, papers etc from the forest. We use various natural resources to fulfill our needs and desires and to make our life easy and comfortable. But nowadays, the environment is getting polluted day by day due to the human activities. Harmful gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide etc produced by various industries is increasing in the atmosphere. The trees are being cut down and the structures of land are being changed to fulfill the increasing demand for housing, foods and other many materials needed for humans. The sources of water are getting polluted due to the mixing of harmful chemicals, wastes of humans, etc. The natural resources are being exploited by the human activities. Humans perform all their activities on the environment.
Human Impact on the Environment
As the population of the world is increasing day by day, the needs and desires are also increasing. To fulfill the increasing needs and desires, humans are using natural resources excessively. They are modifying environment as per their needs. The environment is slowly changing due to various human activities. Water resources are getting polluted due to the mixing of harmful chemicals produced in industries and mixing of wastes oh humans. Humans beings are using chemical fertilizers to fulfill the increasing demand for food which is responsible for soil pollution. The harmful gases released by various industries, burning of fossil fuels, mining activities etc are responsible for air pollution. Humans being are cutting down trees for settlement and agriculture. Slowly, green lands or forest are being replaced by the cities or towns. Humans activities are not only affecting the environment but also billions of other living organisms living on the environment. Human activities create imbalance in the environment which invites various natural calamities like flood, landslide etc.
Effects on Humans Due to Environmental Degradation
Environmental degradation is due to the human activities. The degradation of the environment has caused adverse effects on human beings, plants and other living organisms. Some of the effects of environmental degradation on humans are discussed below,
Conservation of Environment
Human activities are responsible for the degradation of the environment. Unplanned urbanization and industrialization are the major cause of environmental pollution. This not only affects the environment but also affect other living organisms living on earth. The existence of human beings depends upon the environment. So, it is the prime responsibility of every human to conserve the environment. We should use natural resources very wisely and economically. We should not do those activities that pollute the environment. Sustainable developmental activities should be carried out. Harmful gases released from industries and vehicles should be reduced. We should not use chemical fertilizers in the land. We should encourage afforestation and discourage deforestation. We should plant trees everywhere. Mixing of harmful chemicals and wastes of animals and humans with sources of water should be stopped. Mass awareness should be created about the conservation of natural resources. Strick laws should be made and properly implemented for the conservation of the environment. Humans can play a great role in the conservation of the environment.
Human beings can play following roles to balance the nature,
The three types of consumers are given below,
Any three effects on human beings due to environmental degradation are given below,