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Diseases

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Source: www.omicsonline.org fig: Diseases
Source:www. omicsonline.org
fig: Diseases

A disease is an abnormal condition that causes a disruption in the functions of a body tissue, organ, or entire organism. Diseases are recognized by a specific set of symptoms. It is a Condition of an illness that affects a person, animal, or plant due to the infection of germs or internal disorder. The diseases make people unable to work, lean, thin and frail. It may kill the people if they are not treated on time. So, the diseases must be controlled in time otherwise, it may ruin our life. We should adopt healthy lifestyles with daily exercise, consume daily balanced diet and stop consuming tobacco, alcohol, and drugs.

There are two types of diseases. They are Communicable diseases and non- communicable diseases.

Communicable diseases

The diseases which can transfer from one person or animal to another are called Communicable diseases. The Communicable diseases can be caused by infection of germs like bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi, etc. The diseases develop in our body when they get in. Some Communicable diseases are a whooping cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid, measles, malaria, HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhoea, tetanus etc.

Causes of Communicable Diseases

We cannot see the germs with our naked eyes. Such germs can be transmitted to the healthy person through air, water, animal or insect bites, insects like house flies, rodents, cockroaches, etc. Here are some of the causes of diseases listed below:
a. Environmental Pollution
Source:www.wbmfoundation.org
Source:www.wbmfoundation.org
fig:Environmental Pollution
The different kinds of diseases are found in Contaminated air, water, and land. Such different diseases are transmitted through air, water, and soil. Due to air pollution, diseases like pneumonia, T.B., common cold and influenza are caused.
b. Infection due to germs
Germs cause diseases. Direct contact with the patient , use of patient's belongings, blood transfusion, etc cause infection. Similarly, due to cuts and wounds germs enter in our body. The germs come in the direct contact with the blood in the cuts or wounds and enter our body through the circulation of blood.
c.Consumption of stale and junk food
Consumption of stale and junk foods which are not kept safe, the exposed food have a higher chance of getting diseases. People eat exposed and unsafe food sold by the hawkers which are full of germs.

d. Lack of health education

Most of the people of the rural area still believe in superstitious beliefs. They do not go to doctors for the treatment instead they go to (Dhami and jhakri) to heal their diseases and spend a lot of money. They don’t believe in the health education that gives awareness about the prevention and treatment of diseases.

e.Lack of personal and environmental sanitation

The different unhygienic habits of the people like growing long nails, not washing hands properly after using the toilet, exposed drain and sewage, haphazard disposal of solid and liquid disposal lead to different types of diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, typhoid, etc.

f. Insects and worms

Worms are internal parasitics. They may cause obstruction in digestion and also cause anaemia. The different worms are roundworms, tapeworms, hookworms, etc. The insects like mosquitoes and sand flies transmit the diseases by biting and injecting the germs into the body of the healthy person.

Modes of Transmission of Communicable Diseases

a. Polluted air and water
About 80% of the diseases are transmitted through polluted water. People wash clothes, bath near the sources of water. There are different diseases transmitted through air, water, and soil. The diseases like common cold tuberculosis, measles etc. are transmitted through the polluted air and the diseases like cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid etc. are transmitted through polluted water.

b. Bad habits like smoking and drinking

Smoking and drinking alcohol are the main causes of several diseases. Alcohol is the main result in stomach and liver cancer. Smoking increases the risk of lungs cancer, gastric problems, heart attack, mouth cancer etc.

c. Use of fomites of sick people

People uses fomites for the personal purpose. They may be comb, hanky, towel, clothes, razor etc. Similarly, sharing of comb used by the patient may transfer their diseases. Conjunctivitis can be transmitted through infected eyeglasses and scabies can be transmitted through infected clothes etc.

d. Personal contact

The personal contact with the patient may transfer the diseases to the healthy person. If a patient of common cold sneezes openly in the air, the germs of disease come in the air. If we breathe in such contaminated air, the germs will enter in our body and we will suffer from common cold. Similarly, AIDS is transmitted through sexual contact with the infected person. It is also transferred due to the blood transfusion and use of unsterilized needles for injection.

e. Cuts and Wounds

The germs enter inside our body with the blood through the cuts or wounds. It enters our body through the circulation of the blood. The germs of tetanus enter our body through the wounds or cuts. The hookworm enter in our body if we walk barefooted. If a healthy person has a wound in his hand and touches the cuts or wounds of the AIDS patient. He may also get infected with AIDS.

f. Animal and Insect bite

The disease Rabies can be transmitted to the person through the bite of a mad dog, monkey, wolf and Jackal. Similarly, mice and rats can transfer plague. Malaria is transmitted by the bite of a mosquito, Kala azar is transmitted by the bite of sand fly etc.

g. Contact with Sick animals

Sick animals are the source of diseases. Bird flu can be transmitted to the human beings if we come in contact with the infected birds. Similarly, we can be infected by rabies if you play with the infected dog.

h. Blood transfusion

The diseases can be transmitted to the healthy person through the blood transfusion. If the infected blood is transfused to a healthy person it causes HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B, etc.

i. Vertical transmission

A disease which is transmitted from an infected pregnant mother to her child is the vertical transmission. Diseases like HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis B, Gonorrhea, etc come under vertical transmission.

j. Human carrier

The people who look healthy and do not even show symptoms of the disease but carry the germs are called human carriers. The diseases like Typhoid, diphtheria, and AIDS can be transmitted by human carriers.

Process and Cycle of Communicable Diseases

Source: slideplayer.com
Source: slideplayer.com
fig: Process and Cycle of Communicable Diseases

The tiny micro - organism which enter the bodies of healthy people causes the Communicable diseases. Similarly, the organism which is affected by the germs is called host. When the germs enter the body of the host, they bring about the changes in the host in the form of different symptoms and signs. If the germs find the suitable environment in the body to settle and multiply, a disease is caused. The disease is an interaction between the host, microbe, and suitable environment. The cycle of the communicable disease refers to the condition of entry of germs and appearance of several symptoms.The Communicable disease passes through the following six stages. They are:

1. Incubation period

2. Prodromal period

3. Fastigium period

4. Defervescence period

5. Convalescence period

6. Defection period

Now in detail,

1. Incubation period

The period between the entry of organisms and the appearance of the symptoms of the disease is known as incubation period. The Incubation periods differs according to the type of infection. The incubation period is the time between catching an infection and appearing of the symptoms. When the germs enter in our body, they do not produce the symptoms at once. The disease like Cholera has the too short incubation period whereas leprosy has too long or many years.

2. Prodromal period

In the prodromal period, the characteristic symptoms of the illness appear. The illness is the period between the invasion of the body by an organism. The definite diagnosis of the disease cannot be made out. The symptoms and signs may be fever, weakness, headache, body aches, restlessness, etc.

3. Fastigium period

The Fastigium period is the development of the diseases. The signs and symptoms of the disease appear and the diagnosis of the disease is possible. The disease shows its maximum effects and the patient is limited to the bed. It is the most symptomatic point in the course of an illness.

4. Defervescence period

The Defervescence period is very critical because in this stage proper treatment can save the life of the person and lack of treatment may lead to the death.

5. Convalescence period

In this stage, the process varies from person to person. It depends on the type of surgery or injury. People often take this opportunity to gain new perspectives, reflect on their lives, and make certain lifestyle adjustments.

6. Defection period

In the Defection period, the patient gets well. He may be free from the diseases. But in the case of some diseases, the host may harbour the disease to get for a variable period of time; e.g. typhoid fever, hepatitis B.

Non-communicable Diseases

The diseases which are not passed from person to person is known as noncommunicable diseases. They are also known as chronic diseases, They are of long duration and generally slow progression. Non-communicable diseases include ageing, rapid unplanned urbanization, and the globalization of unhealthy lifestyles. For example,unhealthy lifestyles like unhealthy diets may lead the individuals to the increase in blood pressure, blood glucose, cause different long-lasting diseases.

The 4 main types of noncommunicable diseases are heart attacks and stroke, cancers, chronic respiratory disease( pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.

Causes of Non-communicable diseases

1.Lack of physical activity

Lack of physical activity causes various health problems related to cardiovascular systems and metabolism. People not doing physical activity may have the chance of cancer, High blood pressure, diabetes and many other diseases.

2. Unbalanced diets

The unbalanced diet fails to supply the proper nourishment and nutrients. The problems regarding salt, sugar and fat consumption contributing towards the development of NCDs.

3.Consumptions of tobacco and alcohol

Consumption of tobacco and alcohol make people vulnerable to a host of diseases. It causes lung disease, metabolic disorders, and cancer etc.

4. Environmental factors

The activities of unsustainable practices and emissions that influence bodily function and aid in the development.



  • A disease is an abnormal condition that causes a disruption in the functions of a body tissue, organ, or entire organism.
  • The diseases which can transfer from one person or animal to another are called Communicable diseases.
  • The different kinds of diseases are found in Contaminated air, water and land.
  • Consumption of stale and junk foods which are not kept safe, the exposed food have higher chance of getting diseases.
  • About 80% of the diseases are transmitted through polluted water.
  • Smoking and drinking alcohol are the main causes of several diseases.
  • The germs enter inside our body with the blood through the cuts or wounds.
  • The tiny micro - organism which enter the bodies of healthy people causes the Communicable diseases.
  • The period between the entry of organisms and the appearance of the symptoms of the disease is known as incubation period.
  • In the prodromal period, the characteristic symptoms of the illness appear.
  • The Fastigium period, is the development of the diseases.
  • In the Defection period, the patient gets well. He may be free from the diseases.
  • The diseases which are not passed from person to person is known as noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). They are also known as chronic diseases.
.

Very Short Questions

 The diseases which are not passed from person to person is known as noncommunicable diseases. The causes of non-communicable Diseases are as follows:

1.Lack of physical activity

Lack of physical activity cause various health problems related to cardiovascular systems and metabolism. People not doing physical activity may have the chance of cancer, High blood pressure, diabetese and many other diseases.

2. Unbalanced diets

The unbalanced diet fails to supply the proper nourishment and nutrients. The problems regarding salt, sugar and fat consumption contributing towards the development of NCDs.

3.Consumptions of tobacco and alcohol

Consumption of tobacco and alcohol make people vulnerable to a host of diseases. It causes lung disease, metabolic disorders and cancer etc.

4. Environmental factors

The activities of unsustainable practices and emissions that influence bodily function and aid in the development.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

The diseases which are not passed from person to person is known as noncommunicable diseases. They are also known as chronic diseases, They are of long duration and generally slow progression. Non-communicable diseases includes ageing, rapid unplanned urbanization, and the globalization of unhealthy lifestyles. For example,unhealthy lifestyles like unhealthy diets may lead the individuals to the increase in blood pressure, blood glucose, cause different long lasting diseases.

We know that most of the people of rural area still believe in superstitious beliefs. They do not go to doctors for the treatment instead they go to (dhami and jhakri) to heal their diseases and spend a lot of money. They don’t believe in the health education that gives awareness about the prevention and treatment of diseases.

0%
  •   _________________may kill the people if they are not treated on time.

    Fungi
    Protozoa
    Bacteria
    Diseases
  • We cannot see the germs with our ____________eyes.

    naked
    open
    small
    close
  • Due to _______________, diseases like pneumonia, T.B., common cold and influenza are caused.

    consumption of stale food
    air pollution
    insects and worms bite
    contact with sich animals
  • The insects like _________________________ and  _______________ transmit the diseases by biting and injecting the germs into the body of the healthy person.

    House fly, ant
    Cockroach, dragon fly
    ant, bee
    mosquitoes, sand flies
  • The____________________ is the time between catching an infection and appearing of the symptoms.

    Defection period
    Fastigium period
    Prodromal period
    incubation period
  • Which period of the process and   cycle of communicable diseases is very  critical?

    Prodromal period
    Incubation period
    Defervescence period
    Convalescence period
  • Non -communicable diseases are also  known as ________________ diseases. 

     progressive
    uncurable
    chronic
     dangerous
  • __________________________can be transmitted to the healthy person through the blood transfusion.

    Kala azar
    Rabies
    Cancer
    HIV/AIDS
  • ____________________and drinking alcohol are the main causes of several diseases.

    Eating tobacco
    Smoking
    Drinking tea
    Eating junk food
  • The_____________________ enter in our body if we walk barefooted.

    earthworm
    tapeworm
    ringworm
    hookworm
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