Notes on Natural Resources and Protected Areas for Conservation of Natural Resources in Nepal | Grade 7 > Science > Environment and its Balance | KULLABS.COM

Natural Resources and Protected Areas for Conservation of Natural Resources in Nepal

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Introduction

Human beings and other living organisms are dependent on different types of things that exist freely in nature. They are water, air, forest, soil, minerals, vegetation, wildlife, etc. These things are known as natural resources. Natural resources are the useful raw materials that are used by humans and other living organisms.
Natural resources consist both living and non- living things. Living things includes plants, animals, fossil fuel etc and non- living things include air, water, soil, sunlight, minerals etc. They are also called biotic and abiotic resource respectively. Natural resources are found in our environment. Some natural resources are very important that we cannot live without them while some are not so important. Important natural resources include air, water, plants, sunlight, foods etc. And some natural resources are just used to fulfill our needs and desires like minerals, forests, fossil fuel, etc. All the things that we use in our daily life activities are made of natural resources. We cannot make natural resources ourselves.

Source: www.uidaho.edu Fig: Natural Resources
Source: www.uidaho.edu
Fig: Natural Resources
Types of Natural Resources

Natural resources are divided into three types depending upon their origin, renewability, and utility. They are discussed below,

  • Perpetual Resources: We, humans, use various types of natural resources. Some natural resources are affected by our use whereas some natural resources are not affected by our use. Those natural resources which are not affected by continuous human use are called perpetual resources. T hey do not get finished or their amount is not decreased though they are used continuously in a very large amount. They do not get exhausted. Some of the examples of perpetual resources are solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, flowing water etc. The solar energy is a never ending resource and it will exist as long as there is the sun.
  • Renewable Resources: Renewable resources are those natural resources that can be easily recovered or replaced after their use. They can be produced in a short period of time. Some of the common examples of the renewable resource are forest, water, wood, wildlife, air etc. We use trees for various purpose like, to make houses, furniture, clothes, papers etc. These trees (that are cut down and used) cab be recovered by planting new plants or trees.
  • Non- renewable resources: Non- renewable resources are those natural resources that cannot be replaced or recovered after their use. They cannot be produced again and again once they are destroyed. Their amount goes on decreasing after their use and once they get finished, they cannot be produced or obtained. Some of the common examples of such resources are petrol, kerosene, diesel, minerals, coals, natural gas etc. Non- renewable resources takes very long time to come back in nature.

Importance of Natural Resources

All the living organisms are dependent on the natural resources provided by the earth. No one can live without using natural resources. Natural resources like air, water, sunlight, vegetation etc are very important. Some of the importance of natural resources are discussed below,

  • The soil is used for growing crops and also for making homes.
  • Water is used for drinking purpose, irrigation of crops, hydroelectricity etc. It is very important for the survival of living beings.
  • Air is used by various living organisms. Plants use carbon dioxide and animals use oxygen.
  • Various types of natural resources like land, water, forests etc are the habitats of millions of living organisms.
  • Various types of natural resources and minerals are used to make various substances like iron, steel, gasoline, plastics, cement etc. These things are made in industries from the raw materials found in nature. Natural resources help in the economic development of nature.
  • We obtain foods from natural resources. Green plants prepare foods by using sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and minerals. Animals depend on plants for their food and human beings are dependent upon plants and animals for their food.
  • As the natural resources like forest, wildlife, lakes, birds, etc add beauty to nature, various tourists visits from one place to another to observe such scenery. Like this, natural resources contribute to industry and helps in the economic development of the nation.

Conservation of Natural Resources

As the population of the world is increasing day by day, the natural resources are being used very rapidly and excessively to meet the demands of increasing population. The natural resources are being exploited day by day due to the human activities like construction of roads, buildings, deforestation, etc. Natural resources are important for all the living organisms. So, we should use natural resources very wisely and economically. Not only human beings but all the living organisms depend on upon natural resource for their food, shelter, and many more things. So, the natural resources should be properly conserved and protected to continue the life of millions of living organisms on the earth.

Protected Areas of Nepal for the Conservation of Natural Resources

The government of Nepal has established various protected areas for the conservation and preservation of natural resources. They are established with the aim of protecting and promoting of wildlife, vegetation, and natural environment. The protected areas include national parks, wildlife reserves, conservation areas, etc. Currently, there are ten National Parks, three Wildlife Reserves, one Hunting Reserve and six Conservation Areas in Nepal. In this note, we briefly discuss the protected areas of Nepal.
National Park
A national park is a protected area established for the conservation and management of natural environment including wild animals, plants, and landscapes together with their utilization. The Government of Nepal has established ten national parks in different parts of the country. They are given below,
Source: www.nepaltrekkingpass.com Fig: National Parks of Nepal
Source: www.nepaltrekkingpass.com
Fig: National Parks of Nepal

Chitwan National Park
Established Date: 1973 AD
Total Area: 932 km2

It is the oldest national park of Nepal. It is located in the sub- tropical inner terai of Chitwan, Makwanpur, and Parsa districts. It was listed in World Heritage Site in 1984 AD. There are more than 43 species of mammals including one-horned rhinos, tigers, crocodiles, gaur, wild elephants, pangolin, striped hyena, Gangetic dolphin, monitor lizard, etc. There are more than 450 species of birds and more than 45 species of reptiles and amphibians. Plants like Sal, Sissoo, Khair, Simal are found in this National Park. It provides special trips like bird watching tour and Chitwan jungle safari.

Sagarmatha National Park
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 1148 km2

This park is located in the Khumbu region, north-east of Kathmandu. The park includes Mount Everest and several other peaks including Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Pumori, and Nuptse. The mountains have deep gorges and glacial valleys. The wildlife includes the himalayan Tahr, goral,Musk deer, Jackal, Wolf, and Lynx. Rarely seen wild animals include snow leopard, Himalayan black bear, langur monkey, weasel and Himalayan mouse hare. Birds include Danphe, Blood pheasant, Redbilled chough, Snow cock, Snow pigeon, etc. Plants like Gobre salla, Thingresalla, Bhojpatra, Dhupi, Rhododendron, etc are found in this national park. It is the first national of Nepal to be on the list of World Heritage Site in 1979 AD.

Source: www.ejiusa.com Fig: Chitwan National Park
Source: www.ejiusa.com
Fig: Chitwan National Park

Langtang National Park
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 1710 km2

Langtang is the nearest national park from Kathmandu. It occupies the parts of Rasuwa, Nuwakot and Sindhupalchowk districts of Bagmati zone. The vegetation includes subtropical forests, oak and pine forests, alpine forests and grasslands. This park has various species of rhododendron. The wildlife consists of red panda, musk deer, wild dog, Himalayan Tahr, Himalayan black bear, rhesus monkey, langur, etc. Various species of birds like Impeyan pheasant are found in this national park. There are about 45 villages with homes of various ethnic groups. Langtang is the first Himalayan National Park of Nepal.

Rara National Park
Established Date: 1976 AD
Total Area: 106 km2

It is the smallest national park of Nepal with the country's biggest lake , i.e. Rara lake (10.8 km2). It is located in the Mugu and Jumla districts of Karnali zone. Plants like Rhododendron, Fir, Spruce, Birch, etc are found in this national park. Animals includeRed panda, Musk deer, Himalayan black bear, Leopard, Jackal, Himalayan tahr, Martin, Wild dog, Langur, Wild boar, Otter, etc and birds like Coots, Great crested grebe, Black-necked grebre, Gulls, Migrant water fowls, Mallard, etc are found in this national park. The main aim of this national park is to conserve the unique beauty of Rara Lake and to protect the flora and fauna of the Humla – Jumla Karnali region.

Bardiya National Park
Established Date: 1988 AD
Total Area: 968 km2

It is located in Bardiya district of Bheri zone. Animals likeRhinoceros , Wild elephant , Tiger , Swamp deer , Black buck , Gharial crocodile , Marsh mugger crocodile , Gangetic dolphin etc are found in this region. Birds includeBengal florican , Sliver-eared mesia , Sarus crane , Lesser florican etc. More than 30 different mammals, over 250 species of birds and many snakes, lizards and fish are found in this national park. Reptiles like Gharial crocodile, Marsh mugger crocodile, etc are found in this national park. Mammals found in this park includes Langur monkey, Rhesus monkey, Common leopard, Jungle cat, Fishing cat, Large and small Indian civets, Palm civet, Hyena, Wild dog, Jackal, Sloth bear, etc. About 70% of the park is covered by sal forest and grasses.

Shey- Phoksundo National Park
Established Date: 1984 AD
Total Area: 3555 km2

Source: exploredolpotrekking.com Fig: Shey- Phoksundo National Park
Source: exploredolpotrekking.com
Fig: Shey- Phoksundo National Park

Shey Phoksundo National Park is situated in the mountain region of Western Nepal, covering parts of Dolpa and Mugu Districts. It is the largest national park of Nepal. with the deepest lake of Nepal, i.e. Phoksundo lake. Many gompas and religious sites are found in this park like Shey- gompa that was established in the 11th century. Common animals found in this park includes goral, wild dog, Himalayan tahr, serow, leopard, wolf, jackal, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan weasel, Himalayan mouse hare, yellow-throated marten and langur and rhesus monkeys. Birds found in this park includesImpeyan pheasant (danphe), blood pheasant, cheer pheasant, red and yellow-billed choughs, raven jungle crow, show partridge and many others.

Khaptad National Park
Established Date: 1984 AD
Total Area: 225 km2

It is located in Far- Western Development Region of Nepal. It consists districts ofBhajhang, Bajura, Doti and Achham. Khaptad has its own religious importance it is the home of khaptad baba a popular Pilgrimage of this region.Plants like salla, Khasru, Nigalo, etc and grasslands add beauty to this national park. Animals like Barking deer, Wild boar, Ghoral, Himalayan black bear, Marten, Rhesus monkey, Langur monkey, etc are found in this park. It includes birds like Impeyan pheasant (danphe), Nepal's national bird (Lophophorus impejanus), Partridge, Kalij pheasant, Monal, flycatchers, thrushes, Himalayan griffin, cuckoos, etc.

Makalu Barun National Park
Established Date: 1992 AD
Total Area: 2330 km2

It covers an area of Sankhuwasabha and Solukhumbu districts. About 47 varieties of orchids, 19 species of bamboos, 15 oaks, 87 species of medicinal herbs, 30 verities of rhododendron, and about400 species of birds and verity of wild animals are found in this park. Wild animals like Snow leopard, Clouded leopard, Barking deer, Himalayan marmot and weasel, tahr, Wild boar, Langur monkey, serous etc are found in this national park. Similarly, birds like Wren-babbler, Ground warbler are found in this national park. It supports various types of medicinal herbs, orchids, Gobre sallo, Thingre sallo, Bhojpatra, Rhododendron, Champ, Phirphire etc.

Shivapuri- Nagarjun National Park
Established Date: 2002 AD
Total Area: 159 km2

This national park is located on the northern fringe of Kathmandu. It covers an area of Kathmandu, Nuwakot, and Sindhupalchowk. The wild animals preserved here includes Leopard, Jungle cat, Golden jackal, Himalayan black bear, Mongoose, Marten, Barking deer, Wild beer, Monkey, Langur, Pika, Squirrel, Shrew, etc. Different birds like Eagle owl, Slender- billed babbler, Flycatcher, Cuckoo, Golden-throated barbet, etc are found in this national park. This national park is an important watershed supplying drinking water to Kathmandu.

Source: www.nepaltourismdirectory.com Fig: Shivapuri- Nagarjun National Park
Source: www.nepaltourismdirectory.com
Fig: Shivapuri- Nagarjun National Park

Banke National Park
Established Date: 2010 AD
Total Area: 550 km2

It is located in Banke district of Mid- western Development Region. It is the tenth national park of Nepal. There are about 124 plant species, 34 species of mammals, more than 300 species of birds, 24 species of reptiles, seven amphibian species and fifty eight species of fish found in the park and the ninety percent of natural forest is composed mainly of Sal, Karma, Khair and Sissoo. Various species of birds and animals like elephant, leopard, tiger, wild bear, deer, lanhur, etc are found in this region. Similarly, gharial crocodile and python is also found in this national park.



  • Natural resources are the useful raw materials that are used by humans and other living organisms.
  •  Renewable resources are those natural resources that can be easily recovered or replaced after their use.
  • Non- renewable resources are those natural resources that cannot be replaced or recovered after their use.
  • As the population of the world is increasing day by day, the natural resources are being used very rapidly and excessively to meet the demands of increasing population.
  • A national park is a protected area established for the conservation and management of natural environment including wild animals, plants, and landscapes together with their utilization.
  • There are ten national parks in Nepal.
  • Chitwan National park is the oldest national park of Nepal.
  • Rara National Park is the smallest national park in Nepal.
  • Shey- Phoksundo National Park is the largest national park of Nepal.
.

Very Short Questions

Natural resources are the materials and components that can be found within the environment. The three types of natural resources with one example of each is given below,

  • Perpetual resources: Wind energy
  • Renewable resources: Forest
  • Non- renewable resources: Petrol

Any two importance of natural resources are given below,

  • Natural resources provides habitat to all living beings.
  • Natural resources like forest, wildlife, fountains, lakes, mountains, rivers, birds, wild animals, etc. add beauty to nature.

Any three national parks of Nepal are given below,

  • Chitwan National Park
  • Langtang National Park
  • Rara National Park

A national park is an area set aside for the conservation and management of natural environment including wild animals, plants and landscapes together with their utilization.Chitwan National Park was established in 1973 AD and Khaptad National Park was established in 1984 AD.

  • Sagarmatha National Park = 1148 km2
  • Rara National Park = 106 km2
  • Bardiya National Park = 968 km2
  • Shey- Phoksundo National Park = 3555 km2
  • Makalu Barun National Park = 2330 km2

0%
  • How many types of natural resources are there?

    3
    6
    2
    4
  • The resources having never ending supply and donot get deplete after use are

    Non-perpetual resources
    Renewable resources
    perpetual resources
    Non-renewable resources
  • Some examples of renewable resources are

    petrol,disel,coal
    kerosene,natural gas,solar
    sunlight ,wind,tides
    air,water, land
  • How many National Parks are there in Nepal?

    15
    10
    8
    12
  • Which is the first National Park of Nepal?

    Chitwan National Park
    Rara National Park
    Langtang National Park
    Bardia National Park
  • Which National Park is the largest National Park of Nepal?

    Rara National Park
    Shey- Phoksundo National Park
    Bardiya National Park
    Khaptad National Park
  • When was Langtang National Park Established?

    1988 AD
    1192 AD
    1984 AD
    1976 AD
  • When was Makalu Barun National Park established?

    1955 AD
    1976 AD
    1992 AD
    1990 AD
  • Which National Park was established in 2010 AD?

    Bardiya National Park
    Banke National Park
    Rara National Park
    Chitwan National Park
  • Khaptad National Park is located in

    Eastern Development Region
    Far- Western Development Region
    Central Development Region
    Western Development Region
  • When was Rara National Park was Established?

    1976 AD
    1977 AD
    1984 AD
    1965 AD
  • Which National Park is located in the northern fringe of Kathmandu Valley?

    Chitwan National Park
    Shivapuri- Nagarjun National Park
    Rara National Park
    Bardiya National Park
  • What is the total area of Chitwan National Park?

    755 km square
    852 km square
    956 km square
    932 km square
  • What is the total area of Sagarmatha National Park?

    1148 km square
    1085 km square
    1125 km square
    995 kn square
  • Which districts are covered by Rara National Park?

    Kathmandu and Dolpa
    Mugu and Jumla
    Dolpa and Mugu
    Rasuwa and Nuwakot
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