Notes on Sources and Functions of Nutrients | Grade 7 > Health and Physical Education > Nutritions | KULLABS.COM

Sources and Functions of Nutrients

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The nutrients can be classified into six groups. They are

1. Carbohydrates

2. Proteins

3. Fats

4. Vitamins

5. Minerals

6. Water

Now in detail,

1. Carbohydrates

www.sciencephoto.com
Source:www.sciencephoto.com
Fig: Cardohydrates

Carbohydrates provides energy to the body. They are also called energy giving foods. The energy is used for performing various activities. The Carbohydrates form about 50 to 70 percent of our food. The sources of Carbohydrates are all starchy foods, like bread, rice, potatoes, pasta, cereal products, milk and milk products, sugar, honey and sweet fruits. Too much of carbohydrates can increase the blood, sugar level and cause diabetes. So, we must take the right amount of carbohydrates according to our body requirement.

Importance of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provides heat and energy required for the body.

It safeguards the liver by removing the toxic substances.

It makes the people energetic and stimulates the muscles of the body.

It helps to absorb calcium.

2. Protein

Protein is used for repairing the worn-out tissues, form the new cells and tissues that are needed for growth, development, and repair of the body. Protein provides energy. The growing children need to take adequate protein in order to grow and develop properly. All of us should take daily doses of protein according to our age. The sources of protein are Meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods, cereal products such as bread, soya products, nuts, and pulses.

Importance of protein

Protein helps in growing and developing physically according to the age.

It helps to heal the wounds and bruises quickly.

It stimulates metabolism.

It replaces the worn out tissues and cells by generating new ones.

c. Fat

Fats provide warmth, energy, and support to the body. Fats are essential on the daily basis for all of us. Too much of fats causes a burden to the body and leads to fatness, lead to indigestion, constipation, heart diseases and many other disorders. Fats are stored under the skin which provides insulation against the cold. The sources of Fats are oils, meat and meat products, dairy foods, oily fish, nuts, cakes, biscuits, crisps and other snacks, chocolate etc.

Importance of Fat

Fats helps to absorb vitamins.

It helps to provide warmth and energy to the body.

It helps to avoid loss of appetite.

It helps in regulation of the temperature of the body.

It supports vital organs like heart, liver, kidney, etc.

d. Vitamin

Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamins are required in small quantities but regularly. Vitamins can be further classified into two categories.

1. Fat soluble vitamins- vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitaminK

2. Water-soluble vitamins - vitamin B complex and vitamin C

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamin A

Source:www.pomgen.gov.pg
Source:www.pomgen.gov.pg
Fig: Vitamin A

Vitamin A helps in the normal structure and functioning of the skin and body linings. It also helps to vision in the dim light as well as keeping the immune system healthy. The sources of vitamin A are Liver, whole milk, cheese, butter, spreads, carrots, dark green leafy vegetables and orange-coloured fruits, e.g. mangoes and apricots.

Importance of vitamin A

It helps to improve the vision in dim light.

It helps to provide a good health to our skin.

Vitamin A helps to fight infections like conjunctivitis and night blindness.

It helps to fight several other infections.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from foods. It helps in the formation of strong bones and teeth healthy. Recent research also suggests that vitamin D enhances immune function and improves muscle strength. The sources of vitamin D are Oily fish, eggs, meat, fortified cereals and spreads. Most of the vitamin D is obtained through the action of sunlight on our skin during the summer months.

Importance of vitamin D

Vitamin D saves from diseases like rickets.

It helps to build strong and healthy bones and teeth.

It also helps to safe from bone related diseases.

It also helps to keep the skin healthy.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and protects the cells in our bodies against damage. It also helps red blood cells from getting destroyed. It also helps to keep stores of Vitamin A, vitamin K, and iron. The sources of Vitamin E are Vegetable and seed oils and spreads, nuts, and seeds.

Importance of Vitamin E

Vitamin D helps to maintain healthy and smooth skin.

Helps to increase sexual functions in males and assists in pregnancy among females.

Help to keep stores of Vitamin A, vitamin K, and iron.

Protects RBCs from getting destroyed.

Vitamin K

www.arkzoft.net
Source:www.arkzoft.net
Fig: Vitamin K

Vitamin K is stored in the fatty tissues and liver. It helps to maintain strong bones at an older age. It is needed for the normal clotting of blood. It is also required for normal bone structure. The rich sources of vitamin K are Green leafy vegetables ( broccoli, cabbage, spinach, mustard, lettuce), meat and dairy products.

Importance of Vitamin K

It helps the blood clot and saves from anemia and weakness.

It helps to save from liver infections and disorders.

It also helps to protect the heart and optimize insulin.

It helps to maintain strong bones and prevent bone related diseases called Osteoporosis.

Water soluble vitamins:

i) Vitamin B complex

Vitamin B is the collection of vitamin B1, B2, B6, and B12. Vitamin B1 is involved with nervous system and muscles, and the heart. It helps to release energy from carbohydrate. The diseases like muscular pain, weakness, and nervous disorder take place in the absence of vitamin B1. The sources of vitamin B1 are Whole grains, nuts, meat (especially pork), fruit and vegetables and cereals

Vitamin B2 is associated with oral and throat health. It helps to release energy from food. It is also needed for the normal structure and functioning of the skin and body. The sources of vitamin B2 are Milk and milk products, eggs, rice, fortified breakfast cereals, liver, pulses, mushrooms and green vegetables.

Vitamin B6 helps to release energy from protein and helps to form hemoglobin in the blood. In the absence of B6 children may suffer from convulsion, fits, and nervousness. The sources of vitamin B6 are Poultry, white fish, milk and milk products, eggs, whole grains, soya beans, peanuts and some vegetables.

Vitamin B12 is important for making red blood cells and to keep the nervous system healthy. Also, helps to release energy from food. The sources of vitamin B12 are Meat, fish, milk and milk products, cheese, eggs, yeast extract and fortified breakfast cereals.

Importance of Vitamin B complex

It helps to keep the body healthy with respect to the nervous system, muscles, and cells.

Vitamin B complex helps to fight against several infections.

It helps to develop mental health.

It saves from anemia by helping to produce adequate RBCs.

It helps to keep the skin and eyes healthy.

ii) Vitamin C

Vitamin C is the important nutrients required for the normal structure and functioning of body tissues. It also helps the body to absorb iron from non-meat sources such as vegetables. It helps in assisting the healing process. Overcooking destroys vitamin C easily. Some of them are fruit especially citrus fruits and berries, green vegetables, peppers, and tomatoes.

Importance of Vitamin C

Vitamin C helps to control a cough and cold.

It helps to develop healthy gums and teeth.

It controls the blood which comes out of wounds.

It helps to maintain healthy and lustrous skin.

e. Minerals

Minerals help our body to stay healthy. Our body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making hormones and regulating our heartbeat. Minerals are found in the body fluids, hormones, enzymes, blood, saliva etc and along with bones and teeth. There are about 24 different types of minerals found in the body. Some of them are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, iron, magnesium, etc.

The Sources of minerals depend on the types of minerals. Minerals are found in milk, iodized, salt, meat, fish, eggs, pulses, sea foods, beans, fruits, leafy vegetables, etc. The most important minerals: iron and iodine.

i) Iron

Iron also plays a key role in providing strength to the immune system of the human body. Iron that we consume in sufficient amounts can help to focus on the concentration and energy. It will also boost cognitive and mental performance. Red blood cells provide oxygen to damaged tissues, organs, and cells. Without it, there would be no hemoglobin. Iron helps to form hemoglobin. Haemoglobin helps to transport oxygen to the cells. A person having low in iron fails to form hemoglobin and finally suffers from the diseases called 'anemia'. The rich sources of iron are Soya beans, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, cereals, bread, spinach, turnip, broccoli, and dry fruits also have good iron content. Iron tablets are necessary for pregnent women. Iron tablets are found free of cost in health centers.

ii) Iodine

Iodine is an important mineral for the physical and mental growth of the people. In the absence of iodine in food, the physical and mental growth of children will be affected. In the absence of arcuate iodine, thyroid gland bulges out and appears as a lump at the neck externally. Iron helps to assist in the pregnancy. It helps to develop a baby both physically and mentally. In the vegetables,, you will find iron on sweet potatoes, onions, and spinach. In the fruit group, you will find strawberries, banana, and cantaloupe. Similarly, the sources of iodine are iodized salt, sea foods, cow's milk, eggs, curd, etc.

f. Water

Water is in our cells, hormones, enzymes, tissues, blood, bone etc. A person cannot live without water for many days. Water maintains the body temperature and helps to conduct the important materials. It helps to excrete the waste, poisonous and unnecessary materials out of our body. All the people of any age should drink enough water to meet the requirement of water. People drink less water in the winter season in comparison to the summer season.

Source:forestcountypublichealth.org Fig: Wter
Source:forestcountypublichealth.org Fig: Water

Importance of Water

Water helps in the digestion of food in the human body.

Water helps to maintain a balanced temperature.

It helps to attain a weight of the body.

It saves people from dehydration and constipation.

It helps to evacuate the waste materials produced in the cells.



  • Carbohydrates provides energy to the body. They are also called energy giving foods.
  • Protein are used for repairing the worn-out tissues, form the new cells and tissues that are needed for growth.
  • Fats provide warmth, energy and support to the body. Fats are essential on the daily basis for all of us.
  • Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally.
  • Vitamin A helps in the normal structure and functioning of the skin and body linings.
  • Vitamin D is needed for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from foods.
  • Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant and protects the cells in our bodies against damage.
  • Vitamin K is stored in the fatty tissues and liver.
  • Vitamin C is the important nutrients required for the normal structure and functioning of body tissues.
  • Minerals are important for our body to stay healthy.
  • Iron also plays a key role in providing strength to the immune system of the human body.
  • Water is in our cells, hormones, enzymes, tissues, blood, bone etc.
.

Very Short Questions

In the absence of iodine in food, the physical and mental growth of children will be affected. Similarly, in the absence of arcuate iodine, thyroid gland bulges out and appears as a lump at the neck externally. Iron helps to assist in the pregnancy. It helps to develop a baby both physically and mentally.

Minerals help our body to stay healthy. Our body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making hormones and regulating our heartbeat. Minerals are found in the body fluids, hormones, enzymes, blood, saliva etc and along with bones and teeth. There are about 24 different types of minerals found in the body. Some of them are calcium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, copper, iron, magnesium, etc.

Vitamin C is the important nutrients required for the normal structure and functioning of body tissues. It also helps the body to absorb iron from non-meat sources such as vegetables. It helps in assisting the healing process. Overcooking destroys vitamin C easily. Some of them are fruit especially citrus fruits and berries, green vegetables, peppers, and tomatoes.

Importance of Vitamin C

Vitamin C helps to control a cough and cold.

It helps to develop healthy gums and teeth.

It controls the blood which comes out of wounds.

It helps to maintain healthy and lustrous skin.

The Importance of Vitamin B complex are listed below:

It helps to keep the body healthy with respect to the nervous system, muscles, and cells.

Vitamin B complex helps to fight against several infections.

It helps to develop mental health.

It saves from anemia by helping to produce adequate RBCs.

It helps to keep the skin and eyes healthy.

Vitamin K  helps to maintain strong bones at an older age. It is needed for the normal clotting of blood. It is also required for normal bone structure. The rich sources of vitamin K are Green leafy vegetables ( broccoli, cabbage, spinach, mustard, lettuce), meat and dairy products.

0%
  • Too much of  ____________________ can increase the blood, sugar level,  and cause diabetes.

    carbohydrates
    Protein
    fats
    minerals
  • Protein helps in _______________________and developing physically according to the age.

    helping
    growing
    listening
    building
  • Fats are stored under the skin which provides insulation against the__________________ . 

    vitamins
    diseases
    cold.
    fats
  • Vitamins are substances that your body needs to_________________ and ___________________ normally.

    grow, develop
    grow, digest
    eat, digest
    help, grow
  • __________________ also helps to vision in the dim light as well as keeping the immune system healthy.

    Vitamin C
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin K
  • _________________________is associated with oral and throat health.

    Vitamin B12
    Vitamin B2
    Vitamin B1
    Vitamin B6
  • _________________________ is the important nutrients required for the normal structure and functioning of body tissues.

    Vitamin K
    Vitamin B
    Vitamin A
    Vitamin C
  • Iron also plays a key role in providing strength to the immune system of the ______________________________ . 

    respiratory system
    digestive system
    whole body
    human body.
  • People drink less water in the winter season in comparison to the _____________________  season.

    autum
    spring
    rainy
    summer
  • In the absence of arcuate_______________, thyroid gland bulges out and appears as a lump at the neck externally.

    iodine
    vitamin A
    vitamin D
    vitamin K
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