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Nomenclature of Compounds Containing Single Functional Group

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1) Alcohol

The hydroxyl derivatives of alkanes are known as alcohols.

General formula - (CnH2n+1.OH) or R-OH

Word root - alk

Primary suffix and the secondary suffix - ol (Count the number of carbon atoms and give its parent name- 'e' of the parent name is substituted by 'ol').

IUPAC name - alkane (-e) + ol = alkanol

Molecular formula Common name (alkyl alcohol) IUPAC name

CH3-OH

C2H5-OH

CH3-CH2-CH2-OH

Methyl alcohol

Ethyl alcohol

n-propyl alcohol

Methanol

Ethanol

Propan- 1- ol

as
iso-propyl alcohol Propan- 2- ol
as
tert- butyl alcohol 2-methyl propan-2- ol
SA
ethylene glycol 1,2- ethane diol
as
Glycerol (Glycerine) 1,2,3- propane triol

2) Haloalkanes

Halogen derivatives of alkane are known as haloalkane.

General Formula - CnH2n+1.X or R-X (X= Cl, Br, I)

Word root - alk

Prefix - halo

Suffix - ane

IUPAC name - haloalkane

Molecular Formula Common name (alkyl halide) IUPAC name
CH3 - Cl Methyl chloride Chloromethane
CH3-CH2-Br Ethyl bromide Bromoethane
CH3-CH2-CH2-I Propyl iodide Iodopropane
as
Iso-propyl chloride 2- chloropropane
as
Tert- butyl chloride 2- chloro- 2- methylpropane
as
Iso-butyl chloride 1- chloro- 2- methylpropane

3) Alkyl cyanide

General Formula - R- C≡ N or R-CN (R = CnH2n+1)

Common name - Alkyl cyanide

IUPAC name - alkane + nitrile = alkane nitrile

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
CH3-CN Methyl cyanide Ethanenitrile
CH3-CH2-CN Ethyl cyanide Propane nitrile
CH3-CH2-CH2-CN Propyl cyanide Butane nitrile
CH3-CH2- CH2-CH2-CN Butyl cyanide Pentane nitrile

4) Alkyl isocyanide -

General formula -R-NC

Common name- Alkyl isocyanide

IUPAC name -alkyl + carbylamines

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name

CH3-NC

Methyl isocyanide Methyl carbylamine

C2H5- NC

Ethyl isocyanide Ethyl carbylamine

CH3 -CH2- CH2- NC

Proyl isocyanide Propyl carbylamine

5) Amines -

  • 1º amine

General formula -R-NH2

Common name -Alkyl + amine

IUPAC name - Alkanamine or Amino alkane

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
CH3-NH2 Methylamine Methanamine or aminomethane
CH3-CH2-NH2 Ethylanime Ethanamine or amino ethane
CH3-CH2-CH2-NH2 Propylamine Propanamine or amino propane
  • 2º amine

General formula- as

IUPAC name -If two alkyl groups are present in the amine group, one N is written for one alkyl group + amino group + parent name of second alkyl group,

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
CH3-NH-CH3 Dimethylamine N-methyl aminomethane
CH3-NH-CH2-CH3 Ethylmethylanime

N- methyl aminoethane

  • 3ºamine

General formula - as

IUPAC name -If three alkyl groups are present in the amine group, then two N, N is written for two alkyl group, amino group + parent name of the third alkyl group.

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
as
Trimethylamine N,N- dimethyl aminomethane
as
Ethyl dimethylamine N,N- dimethyl aminoethane

6) Nitro group -

General formula -R-NO2

Common and IUPAC name -nitro + alkane = nitroalkane

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
CH3-NO2 Nitromethane nitromethane
CH3-CH2-NO2 Nitroethane nitroethane

7) Ethers -

General formula -

  • R - O - R (simple ether)
  • R - O - R' (mixed ether)

Common name -

  • dialkyl ether (Simple ether)
  • alphabetically (Mixed ether)

IUPAC name -

  • alk + oxy + alkane (Simple ether)
  • lower alk + oxy + higher alkane (Mixed ether)
Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
CH3-O-CH3 Dimethyl ether methoxymethane
C2H5-O-C2H5 Diethyl ehter ethoxyethane
C2H5-O-CH3 Ethyl methyl ether methoxyethane
CH3-O-CH2-CH2-O-CH3 1,2- dimethoxyethane 1,2 -dimethoxyethane
AS

di-isopropyl ether 2-isoproxypropane
as
2- methoxy- 2- butene 2- methoxy-2- butene

8) Ketones -

General formula -

  • Simple ketone
    Simple ketone
  • Mixed ether
    Mixed ether

IUPAC name -Alkane - e +one = alkanone

Fixed the position of keto group and count the number of carbon atoms including -CO- group, give its parent name and 'e' of the parent name is substituted by one.

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
CH3-CO-CH3 Dimethyl ketone (acetone) 2- propanone
CH3-CO-CH3-CH3 Ethyl methyl ketone 2- butanone
as
Methyl iso-propylketone 3-methyl butan-2-one
CH3-CH2-CH2-CO-CH3 Methyl proplketone pentan-2- one

9) Carboxylic acids -

General formula - RCOOH or as

IUPAC name - alkane -e + oic acid = alkanoic acid

Fixed the position of -COOH group and count the number of carbon atoms including -COOH group, give its parent name and 'e' of the parent name is substituted by -oic acid.

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
HCOOH(exception) Formic acid Methanoic acid
CH3-COOH Acetic acid Ethanoic acid
CH3-CH2-COOH Propanoic acid Propanoic acid
CH3-CH2-CH2-COOH Butyric acid Butanoic acid
A
Oxalic acid Ethanedioic acid
A
Citric acid 2- hydroxy propane-1,2,3- trioic acid
A
Trataric acid 2,3- dihydroxy butane 1,4- dioic acid.

10) Aldehydes -

General formula - RCHO or a

IUPAC name - alkane -e + al = alkanal

Fixed the position of -CHO froup and count the number of carbon atoms including -CHO group, give it parent name and 'e' of the parent name is replaced by 'al'.

Molecular Formula Common name IUPAC name
HCHO (exception) Formaldehyde methanal
CH3-CHO Acetaldehyde ethanal
CH3-CH2-CHO Propionaldehyde propanal
A
Iso- butyraldehyde 2-methyl propanal
A
β- methyl, butyraldehyde 3- methyl butanal
CHO-CH=CH-CH2-CHO Pent- 2- ene- 1,5 -dial pent- 2 ene- 1,5- dial

11) Amides -

General Formula - RCONH2 or a

IUPAC name - alkane -e + amide = alkanamide

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
H-CONH2 (Exception) Formamide Methanamide
CH3-CONH2 Acetamide Ethanamide
CH3-CH2-CONH2 Propionamide Propanamide
CH3-CH2-CH2-CONH2 Butyramide Butanamide
NH2-CO-CH2 Urea Amino methanamide

12) Esters -

General formula - R-COOR or R-COOR'

Prefix - alkyl

word root - alk

Primary suffix - ane, ene, or yne

Secondary suffix - oate

IUPAC name - alkyl alkanoate

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
HCOOCH3 (Exception) Methyl formate Methyl methanoate
CH3-COO-CH3 Methyl acetate Methyl ethanoate
CH3-COO-C2H5 Ethyl acetate Ethyl ethanoate
A
Ethyl methyl propionate 2-methyl ethyl propanoate
A
Ethyl 1,2- ethyl butanoate ethyl- 2-ethyl butanoate

13) Acid anhydrides -

General formula -

  • R-CO-O-CO-R or H(SIMPLE)
  • R-CO-O-CO-R' OR J(MIXED)

IUPAC name - alkanoic anhydride

Molecular formula Common name IUPAC name
a
Acetic anhydride Ethanoic anhydride
a
butyric propionic anhydride butanoic propanoic anhydride

Reference:

Adhikari, Rameshwar; Khanal, Santosh; Subba , Bimala; Adhikari, Santosh; Khatiwada, Shankar Pd. Universal Chemistry XI. First. Vol. 1st. Kathmandu: Oasis Publication, 2069.

Chaudhary, Ganga Ram; Karna, Shila Kant Lal; Sharma, Kanchan; Singh, Sanjay; Gupta, Dipak Kumar. A Textbook of Higher Secondary Chemistry XI. Ed. 2nd. Kathmandu: Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar, 2069 (2012).



  • The compounds containing single functional group can be named as done above.
  • The naming depends upon the functional group, as different functional group carry different suffix.
  • The naming depends upon the number and position of the carbon atom as well. 
.

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