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Genetic engineering is the process of adding, replacing or removing genetic units for the better, permanent and heritable changes in different plants and animals. It is also known as the technique which deals with the recombinant of DNA. In this technique DNA of species in inserted into the DNA of vector such as plasmid, cosmid, virus, etc. In this technology terms such as “gene surgery”, “gene manipulation”, “gene therapy”, “gene transplantation”, etc. commonly used.
Genetic engineering deals with the detailed knowledge of gene, its molecular structure and nature as well the ability to manipulate cells of higher plants or animals to the different vector DNA. Present world is amazed with the research of this technology. It is has been a great revolution to the world of biology. This technique has brought different useful and better species of the plants and animals. Scientists have done many researches such as they have introduce the Luciferase gene from firefly to the tobacco plant to measure the light emitted by the plants and other they have introduce the nitrogen fixation gene (NIF gene) and bacillus thuringinensis (Bt)gene in the cereals plants has help agriculture a lot. This technique is able to identify different genetic diseases in human being as well as its cure.
Genetic engineering has brought a great revolution in the sector of agriculture. This technique has brought different improvement in the plants which are able to good in both quality and quantity. This technique is able to produce different plants which are diseases resistant, has all the required nutrients, resistance to fungal, bacteria and virus. This technique has done great work in the field of medical science too.
Cloning of DNA technique involves with three steps. In first step, the DNA of the organism having desirable gene is cut into the very small pieces. This gene is known as target gene or foreign gene.
In second step, the targeted DNA is joined (in vitro) artificially to a second piece of DNA which can replicate itself and attach itself to the other target DNA. The secondly formed DNA is known as vector or cloning vehicle. The joined hybrid molecule, recombinant DNA, consist of two type of DNA arranged in one another in circular structured DNA.
In third step, the DNA formed by the combination of vector and target is introduce into the living cell. That cell work as biological copying machine which produce the many copies of the hybrid DNA. This process is known as molecular cloning.
Cloning is the basic step of recombinant DNA technology in which foreign DNA is attached to vector. Cloning of DNA has different tools which are mentioned below:
Types of plasmids
Recombinant DNA technology involved with different steps for the perfect hybrid species. Here the targeted DNA is inserted in the vector DNA which is capable of replicating within the host cell for the proper cloning of specific DNA. Some steps involve in recombinant DNA technology are described below:
Recombinant DNA technology has a great application in the present world. With the application of biotechnology gene transfers is possible in the present world. Any gene can be inserted in any body by the help of recombinant DNA technology.
This technology has brought so many opportunities for the manipulation of the genetic materials. This technology is able to produce different unrelated genes hybrids. This technology has various importances in different fields. Some of its importance in different field is described below:
Genetic engineering has got a lot application in the field of medical science as well as human health. It is able to produce different medicines to cure different diseases. Different human diseases have got treatment with the help of this technology. Some of its other uses are as follows:
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1. Recombinant DNA technology terms such as “gene surgery”, “gene manipulation”, “gene therapy”, “gene transplantation”, etc. commonly used.
2. Vector should be able to replicate inside the host cell.
3. Plasmids are the circular piece of DNA present in bacteria which has extra chromosome.
4. This technology has been able to produce different vaccines which contain an antigen prepare from the parts or the whole organism causing the diseases.
5. Microbial products are safer to use than that of the products produced from traditional sources..