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In recent few years, the production of the food grain has been increased. This is due to the different fertilizers and pesticides which help to increase the fertility the soil as well as destroy the harmful insects.
Simply, fertilizer is defined as any chemical substances which contain the required elements for the proper growth and development of plants. There are two types of fertilizer which are described below:
Though the chemical fertilizer increases the production rate as well as help in the quick growth and development of the plants, it has got several disadvantages. Some of them are mentioned below:
So, to overcome these problems caused by the chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer should be used.
Soil has the great composition; it contains all the required nutrients which are important for the proper growth and development of the plants. But the continuous use of the land for the agriculture may affect the fertility of the soil and may lead less production. In the absent of any one of the nutrient, it may affects in the proper growth and development of the plants.
The fertility rate of the soil can be increased by different method. Most of the farmers sue the chemical fertilizers to enhance the fertility rate of the soil. But the frequent or over use of the chemical fertilizers destroys the fertility of the soil and effect the composition of the soil. So, to decrease the affects of the chemical fertilizer, recently a new train of using fertilizer which is environmental friendly and can be prepare from the biological components. Biofertilizer can be defined as the materials which are originated biologically and can be use commonly for to maintain and improve the soil fertility. They are categorized into two groups. They are:
Manure is defined as the organic matters which are biodegradable and mixed with the soil. It is consists of all the essential nutrients which are required for the growth of plants. With the use of manure the productivity of the crops can be enhance. There are three types of manure. They are described below:
Bio-fertilizer is the fertilizer prepared by the biologically active products which are capable to improve the fertility of soil. Some bio-fertilizer are bacteria, cynobacteria and fungi. They are able to incerase the fertility of soil by adding more nutirents to the soil with their different biological activities.
The major use of VAM is to supply the inorganic nutrients and absorption of water. With the help of VAM phosphate can be easily available to the plant. It plays vital role in the phosphate nutrition.
Nitrogen fixation is the process which deals with the conversion of the free nitrogen of the atmosphere into the nitrogenous salt. Different bacteria like Rhizobium and Bacillus radiciola helps in the nitrogen fixation. These bacteria enter on the root through the root hair from the soil of plants like beans, soybeans, gram and groundnuts. Due to the presence of pigment called leghaemoglobin root nodule is pinkish. Leghaemoglobin also absorbed the oxygen.
Some free living microorganism such as cynobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria help in nitrogen fixation.
Arvind K. Keshari,Kamak K. adhikari. A Text Book of Higher Secondary Biology. Kathmandu: Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar, 2014.
Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069
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1. Nitrogen fixation is the process which deals with the conversion of the free nitrogen of the atmosphere into the nitrogenous salt.
2. Manure is defined as the organic matters which are biodegradable and mixed with the soil.
3. Fertilizer is defined as any chemical substances which contain the required elements for the proper growth and development of plants.
4. Leghaemoglobin also absorbed the oxygen..