John Lukacs was a Hungarian philosopher and the academic historian. In his early day, he was strongly influenced by Hegel but later on he came under the influenced of Marx and Lenin. So he also has known as an important Marxist thinker. As a historian, he sees very intimate relations between history and consciousness. That means consciousness is a product of historical context. He has put forward his ideas through his important book, historical consciousness. Furthermore, Lukacs involved in studying the relation of art to politics.
The history is the chronological record of the past events. Though people say it is impartially return from the neutral ground, it is always influenced by contemporary power structure. So it is said that history is written in the favor of powerful and those of winners and the voice of defeated and powerless is rarely mentioned. If also negativity return not in the favor of powerless. So, history can rarely impartial. Facts are something known to be true and can be proved but truth is the state of something being true based on the facts. Though they are interrelated to each other, they defer to some extent if we see more specifically. That is fact has proven standard whereas truth may not have proven standard. We can say that fact is truthful but truth may not be factual. Truth may remain abstract most of the time but fact is not always absolute rather it is relative.
No facts ever stand by it. It is not independent. It is not free. The value of fact may depend on their relationship more than their accuracy. So, the association is greatly involved with the fact that is fact cannot be separated from associations. The fact is not absolute but relative. The expression of fact is inseparable from their purposes. Every human statement thus is actually true and potentially. Finally, he talks about the truth. What is truth cannot be easily answered? The purpose of historical truth is an understanding more than accuracy that contains the reduction of untruth. Every fact is dependent on another fact. No fact is fact but every fact is related to many other. The fact does not stay fact forever. Fact undergoes various modifications or fact comes into being through many modifications like comparison, contrast, generation, classification, and connection. So, the fact is not absolute.
Further, every fact exists in association with other facts. So, no fact is absolute fact are meaningless by themselves and they mean something in relation to another fact. The value of facts may depend on their relationship even more than on their accuracy, Fictio that means construction. Here Lukacs says that the human mind plays the role of constructing. So Fictio is higher than factum that is an actual deed or what is done. So every fact is fiction.
When we are taking about the fact the expression occupies larger portion of actual fact and takes of its contents the made up judgment of events, situation and characters. In other word history contains very nominal fact; rest of it contains only statement about the events and characters. The expression of fact is inseparable from its purpose. The same fact may be used for different purposes. What is important is for what purpose, the history is return. Every human statement may be actual, true and possibly on true. So, no statement is either absolutely true or absolutely untrue. Scientific truth and historically truth are different. Historical truth touches our mind and sensory whereas scientific truth are based on hard fact.
Lukacs’s view a fact is different from our general perception because he says that the fact describe in the history cab be false. But the common people understand that history has described facts as they are. They believed that fact can be return as if it is whereas Lukacs believes that fact cannot be return without the association of human mind. It comes to the existence when it is perceived. At the same time, it is modified and interpreted .so for Lukacs all fact s are fiction and the constructed one. For him, fact is a change because of association. He says that fact cannot remain true because it cannot come alone and isolated. When it is isolated, it does not come into existence. It has to be associated with other to have its existence. So, facts are not facts but they are a fictional one. So, they are just the statements of some historians.
Common people misunderstand facts as the real one. But he says that they are very different from eachother. So, we should not be confused with difference between fact and truth. Fact is open reality and it is external. On the other hand truth is something that is perceived by a mind hence it is internal. So, history may have some fact but it may not have truth because the same fact is understood differently by different people. As a result fact and truth can never be the same. Lukacs contention is that a fact is an abstract. A fact is abstract because they cannot stand by itself. It does not possess an independent value and meaning. It acquires its value only if it is compare with other facts. The more accurate of fact, the less truthful it appears to be. A fact becomes more meaningful if it belongs to the association. That means it becomes more meaningful when it is related to other fact. By the same token of fact is not free from the effect of expression. A fact acquires its value, accuracy and meaning from the way it is expressed. What a fact is the product of hoe it is expressed, to some degree. With what purpose and in what contexts a fact is expressed determined jointly what a fact is. By the abstractness of fact Lukacs means all these things mention above. Facts do not have absolute value. Facts are relative and the same fact can have different meanings. To make a fact meaningful it has to be associated with other facts. Hence, association is very important for the analysis and evaluation of fact. Facts are not separable from their expression. The expression of a fact is inseparable from its purpose. There is no absolute hierarchy between fact and fiction. Understanding is the primary purpose of historical truth.
Generally we say in our daily life accurate fact, and inaccurate fact. But we never or hardly say accurate truth or inaccurate truth. Rather we say absolute truth or relative truth or universal truth or particular truth. Or we can also say scientific truth or philosophical truth. From this examples which are mention above, we can certainly gets certain insight regarding to the basis difference between the fact and a truth. A fact cannot be depending on itself for the sake of its value, accuracy and meaning. But a truth can depend on itself. Truth can depend on itself because truths are independent. They can survive on their own. For truth, value and accuracy are less important than truthfulness. Element of truthfulness are integral to truth whereas the elements of accuracy and value are essential to fact. Fact is subjects to the effect of purpose and context. But truth can remain unaffected by purpose and context.
Reference-Lohani, s. (2012). Western Intellectual Tradition.Kathmandu: M.K. Publishers.