The expression of the research problem in the interrogative substance is the question. A schedule question raise contains various kinds of question which must express the research problem. They are related to facts, figures, knowledge, and opinion to be collected from the respondents.
The question whose answer to the question are already conceived and classified into different possible groups are known as a structural question. In general, the answer to these question is given either in numbers or by some specific words. The tabulation of the response/answer of a structured question are simple and free from subjective replies of the respondents, Thus there are greater standardisation and objective in the replies of the structural question.
In other words, the modes of reporting the answer to the same question do not differ and there is perfect homogeneity in the answer.
Or structural question is that in which the possible replies can be predetermined. The respondent chooses one of the alternatives the best suits him.
What is your age?
Are you literate /Illiterate?
Types of Structural data.
1. Dichotomous question.
When the reply to the question is expressed to be given in one of the two alternatives, the question is called the dichotomous question. Generally, the reply of the one respondent is positive and the other respondent is negative.
2. Multiple choice question.
If the reply to the question is expected to be one of the many prefixed replies (more than two); the question is known as Multiple Choice question. The multiple choice question is sometimes also called as Cafeteria question. The word cafeteria is used because the respondent is to select one of the given replies (as similar to selecting of one of the food items from a Cafeteria’s Menu). The alternative must be exclusively of each other and has a great care has to be taken to see the all possible alternative answer have been included. The alternative must be mutually exclusive of each other.
What type of career do you prefer to choose?
To avoid any bias by this way, changes in the order of the possible answer are made in different sets of the questioner and the respondents should not be given any chance to give more than one answer in this type of question.
In many cases, the prior expectation of the possible answer cannot be made. In such case, open end question are asked. The question generally related to opinions sought about any particular problem or suggestion involved to solved the problem. The answer to these question is long and varied. There is no prior classification or grouping to which replies are likely to be received.
The method of reporting may also differ from person to person. Though open end question presents a great difficulty in tabulation, open end questions are to be used in the pilot survey to get an idea of the possible replies.
Or In those question, the respondent is not given an alternative answer. They have to make replies on their own after their thinking. The answer to these question may be long and varied which cause difficulty in tabulation/.
It is a question so worded that the respondent is compelled to give the answer in a certain in a certain direction.
Leading question should not avoid as far as possible, but when special emphasis has to be given to any particular aspect, it may be included.
Or, Leading question are the question, presented in such a way that the respondents are compelled to give the answer in a certain direction.
The type of question which contains a number of an alternative answer, but the respondent, instead of answering only one alternative has ranked all the alternatives in order of his/her preferences/dislike. For this purpose, to every alternative, a space like () is given for marking the order or ranking of preference or dislikes.
Or ranking item question is that in which in these question various alternatives are given but unlike the multiple choice question where one alternative had to be picked up, here the various alternatives are to be arranged in other of your preference.
Example.Which of your preference of the following profession.
Ambiguous question is that in which whose language is such that it may interpret in more than one way, it is called the ambiguous question.
Or Sometimes the language of the question is such that it may interpret in more than the way a question is called the ambiguous question.
For this question, an answer may be vague. For instance, some may say it is semi-detached, other that it is suburban and other that it is pleasant and so on. Vagueness occurs in why question. For instance, to the question-Why did you go to the cinema? the answer expected is so many different things that its use would produce a useless mixture of an answer.
Presuming question is that type of question, some presumption about the reply of the respondent is already made. This question can be asked only after a filter question that the respondent does have that presumption.
1. How many cigarettes a day you smoke?
2. Whom did you vote in the last election?
In these question, presuming question is that the respondent does smoke that has voted in the last election.
Kerlinger, F.N. Foundation of Behavioural Research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publication, 2000.
Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology. India: Vishwa Prakashan, 1990.
Singh, M.L. and J.M Singh. Understanding Research Methodology. 1998.
Singh, Mrigendra Lal. Understanding Research Methodology. Nepal: National Book centre, 2013.