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Some Useful Chemicals

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Introduction

Various types of chemicals are used in our daily life activities. Some chemicals are useful and some chemicals are harmful. In this lesson, we study about some useful chemicals that are used in our daily life. Some of the examples of useful chemical substances are phenol, dettol, plastics, detergent, chemical fertilizers, different medicines, etc. We use these substances to do our various activities. Like, we use dettol to make our skin germ free, soap for bathing, detergent for washing clothes, etc. We use medicines to cure our diseases. We use chemical fertilizers to increase the fertility of the soil and increase the crop yield. We use various types of chemical substances to perform various activities. Some of the commonly used chemical substances are described below,

Source: www.thevaccinereaction.org Fig: Crystals of Phenol
Source: www.thevaccinereaction.org
Fig: Crystals of Phenol

Phenol

Phenol is also known as carbolic acid. It is an aromatic organic compound. The molecular formula of phenol is C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid that is volatile. It is one of the useful chemicals. Phenol was discovered by Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge in 1834 AD. It was first extracted from coal tar but nowadays it is extracted from petroleum in a large amount. Phenol is an organic compound. It is appreciably soluble in water. It should be handled properly as it is corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Phenol is used for various purpose. Some of the uses of phenol are discussed below,

  • Phenol is used in pharmaceutical industry and also used for making threads, plastics, colors etc.
  • It is used in the study and extraction of bio- molecules.
  • It is used for killing insects and bacteria.
  • It is also used in cosmetic industry.
  • It is used in wounds as a disinfectant.

Dettol

Dettol is one of the important chemical used as medicine. It is used for cleaning cuts and wounds. It was manufactured by Reckitt Benckiser. Dettol has been in use since before 1936. Before, it was used an antiseptic after surgery. Dettol is toxic to many animals, especially cats. It is also harmful to humans. It is poisonous when ingested and inhaled. A 42-year-old British man died from Dettol overexposure in May 2007. Dettol is used for many purposes. Some of the uses of dettol are discussed below,

  • It is used for disinfecting clothes.
  • It is used for cleaning cuts and wounds.
  • It is used in soap to protect skin infection.
  • It is used to clean floors, walls of slaughterhouses, utensils etc.

Detergent

Source: racurs.ua Fig: Detergent Powder
Source: racurs.ua
Fig: Detergent Powder

A detergent is a surfactant or the mixture of surfactant that has cleansing properties. Chemically, the detergent is known as alkylbenzenesuphonate. Detergents are similar to the soap but they are more soluble in hard water. They are also called soapless soaps. They give stronger cleansing action than soap. Detergent also works in acidic water. Detergent is petrochemical that is prepared from petroleum products. They are commonly available as powders or concentrated solutions. Detergents are non- biodegradable. It causes soil pollution and water pollution. They are highly basic and are harmful to human skin. They also affect plants. Detergent also contains various other chemicals like bleach, surfactants, enzymes,water softeners, brighteners, and fragrances. Some of the uses of detergent are discussed below,

  • It is used for cleaning household utensils and dishes.
  • It is used for washing clothes.
  • It is also used for cleaning floors, tubs, counters etc.

Chemical Fertilizers

A chemical fertilizers are the chemical substances applied to the soil or the plants directly for the proper growth and the development of the plants. It can also be defined as the chemical substances by use of which we can increase the fertility of the soil or increase crop yield. They contain the necessary nutrients and minerals needed for the proper growth and development of plants. Due to the constant use of land fo growing crops, the fertility of the lands goes on decreasing or decline which affects the crop yield. In such case, we use chemical fertilizers to increase the fertility of the land and the crop yield. There are two types of chemical fertilizers. They are organic fertilizers and chemical fertilizers. Chemical fertilizers are manufactured in industries by humans using an artificial method. It contains enough nutrients needed for plants. Organic fertilizers are the natural fertilizers that are obtained from the decomposition of animal remains, poultry droppings, and dead plants. They do not contain the enough nutrients needed for plants. Chemical fertilizers pollute the environment whereas organic fertilizers do not pollute the environment.
Usually, for proper growth and development, plant require nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Chemical fertilizers are made by mixing compound that contains nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The main aim of chemical fertilizers is to supply the enough minerals like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium to the plants. Chemical fertilizers should be used in limits, if they are used in excessive amount then it can affect the fertility of the soil and destroy the crops. The main elements needed for the proper growth and development of the plants are discussed below,

Source: www.ibsrt.com Fig: Urea
Source: www.ibsrt.com
Fig: Urea
  • Nitrogen: Nitrogen is very important for the proper growth and development of the plants. It plays an important role in the proper growth of stem and leaves. Deficiency of nitrogen can reduce crop yield, causes yellowing of the leaves, stunt growth and stress the plants ammune system. Some of the examples of chemical fertilizers that contain nitrogen are urea, ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride, etc.
  • Phosphorus: Phosphorus is essential for seed production, photosynthesis, fruit/flower formation, growth of roots etc. Deficiency of phosphorus causes stunted plant growth, decreases in yields of fruit and flowers, as well as the incorrect or whispy formation of flowers. Too much phosphorus also affects the plants. Some of the examples of chemical fertilizers that contain phosphorus are calcium superphosphate, ammonium phosphate, triple superphosphate etc.
  • Potassium: Potassium is essential for the proper growth of flowers,roots, and stalks of leaves. It acts as an activator to many enzymes that are required for photosynthesis and respiration. It helps to resist diseases. Deficiency of potassium causes low yields, decreases immunity power, causes wilting and withering of leaves, etc. Some of the examples of chemical fertilizers that contain potassium nitrate, potassium sulphate, potassium chloride and potassium carbonate.



  • Phenol is also known as carbolic acid. It is an aromatic organic compound.
  •  The molecular formula of phenol is C6H5OH.
  • Phenol is used in pharmaceutical industry and also used for making threads, plastics, colors etc.
  • Dettol is used for cleaning cuts and wounds.
  • A detergent is a surfactant or the mixture of surfactant that has cleansing properties. 
  • Detergent is used for washing clothes and household utensils.
  • A chemical fertilizers are the chemical substances applied to the soil or the plants directly for the proper growth and the development of the plants. 
  • Potassium helps in preparing food for plants, formation of protein and cell division.
  • When there is a deficiency of nitrogen, plants becomes pale and flowers do not bloom properly.
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Very Short Questions

Any four uses of phenol are given below,

  • Phenol is used in cosmetic industry.
  • It is used for making threads, plastic, colours etc.
  • It is used in pharmaceutical industry for the preparation of medicines.
  • It is used in wounds as a disinfectant.

 

Any four uses of dettol are discussed below,

  • It is used in soap to protect skin infection.
  • It is used to clean floors, walls of slaughterhouses, utensils etc.
  • It is used for disinfecting clothes.
  • It is used for cleaning cuts and wounds.

A detergent is a surfactant or the mixture of surfactant that has cleansing properties. Any three uses of detergent are given below,

  • It is used for cleaning household utensils and dishes.
  • It is used for washing clothes.
  • It is also used for cleaning floors, tubs, counters etc.

A chemical fertilizers are the chemical substances applied to the soil or the plants directly for the proper growth and the development of the plants. Any three plants needed for the proper growth and development of plant are given below,

  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium

Any two examples of chemical fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are given below,

  • Nitrogen: Ammonium sulphate and Ammonium chloride.
  • Potassium: Potassium sulphate and Potassium chloride
  • Phosphorus: Calcium superphosphate and Ammonium phosphate,

0%
  • Which chemical substance is used for bathing and washing clothes?

    Ether
    Phenol
    Dettol
    Soap
  • Chemical fertilizers is used to

    Kill germs
    Kill plants
    Increase the fertility of soil
    Kill insects
  • Phenol is used to

    Kill insects
    Increase the fertility of soil
    Wash clothes
    Kill germs
  • Which chemical substance is used for washing cuts and wounds ?

    Phenol
    Soap
    Dettol
    Detergent
  • Detergents are used to

    Clean cuts and wounds
    Protect skin against infection
    wash clothes
    Increase the fertility of soil
  • What is the chemical name of detergent?

    Dialkylbenzenesulphonate
    Diphenylbenzenesulphonate
    Alkylbenzenesulphonate
    Alkylphenylsulphonte
  • Phenol is also known as

    Phenolic acid
    Benzoic acid
    Carbolic acid
    Carboxylic acid
  • Detergent are prepared from

    Phenol
    Petroleum products
    Chemical fertilizers
    Dettol
  • Which one of the following elements help in the proper growth of roots?

    Potassium
    Calcium
    Nitrogen
    Phosphorus
  • Which one of the following is not the chemical fertilizer containing potassium?

    Potassium chloride
    Potassium nitrate
    Potassium sulphate
    Ammonium sulphate
  • Which one of the following is not the chemical fertilizer containing nitrogen?

    Potassium chloride
    Urea
    Ammonium sulphate
    Ammonium chloride
  • Which one of the following is not the chemical fertilizer containing phosphorus?

    Calcium super phosphate
    Bone powder
    Ammonium phosphate
    Ammonium sulphate
  • Phenol is extracted from

    Water
    Petroleum
    Alcohol
    Ether
  • Fruits and seeds become small in size when there is deficiency of

    Nitrogen
    Magnesium
    Phosphorus
    Potassium
  • Phenol is an _________ compound.

    Aliphatic chemical
    Aliphatic organic
    Aromatic organic
    Aromatic inorganic
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kiran singh

baking powder


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Nishant

examples of chemicals


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