Introduction To Biotechnology

Introduction

Simply biotechnology is the branch of science which deals with the modern and advance technology which has been used for the betterment of biological organisms.It is more effectively define as"any technique that uses living microorganisms for specific use."It alsodeal with the utilization of microbes and mocrobial technology for the huge production of useful food material and medicians for the better life of human beings.

Ther is a great connection between human civilization and biolotechnology. As long the human civilization starts the biotechnology has been following them. During old time people use yeast for the perpration of the different alcoholic products like wine and beer. But now modern biotechnology refers for the study of molecular basis of functioning cells to make enough products for the present life. Some of the modern biotechnology of present world are plant tissue culture, recombination of DNA techology and hybridization. It required the knowledge of biology, microbiology, biochemistry etc.

Historical perspectives

Human beings are familiar with the biotechnology from the ancient time during their civilization. Our ancestor were familiar eith the formentation of alcohol and vinegar formation with the help of sugar substrates. First alcoholic product ethanol formed in 1150. After than it wass practised all over the world. In 14th century, for the first time, vinegar was manufactured in industry which was established in France.In 1650, mushroom was artifically cultivated in France.Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observed the yeast cell.

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Source:Scientistsinformation.com
fig:Leeuwenhoek

At the end of 19th century, sewage purification system was brought in practis in Gemany and France. Penicillin was discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1928. Than penicillin. Than penicillin was manufactured industrially in large scale in 1944. From 1950 many antibiotics were discovered andlisted as "Wonder drugs".

Branches of biotechnology

Plant tissue culture

It is the process growing the plant cells, tissues or organs under the suitable condition.In another word it the art or custom of growing the tissues of plant artifically. The proper functioning tissue from a plant is taken and implant in the callus in the artificial enviromental conditions of temperature,pressure, light hormons and nutrients to produce calli.

source:onestopgate.com fig:plant tissue
source:onestopgate.com
fig:plant tissue

Simply calli is the unidentified and unmentioned cells. Or, it the prematured form of cell. This technique has play the grate role in the field of agricultural science. It is promoting the agricultural countries to develop in the field of agricultural science. Some of its advantages are mentionedd below:

Helps to conserve the endangered plants.

Support the agriculture based country to enhance their economic status.

  • Help in the study of plant tissue and cell.
  • Helps to form new kinds of plants.
  • Increase the quality and quantity od food products.

Protoplast Culture

Protoplast means the cellorganells excluding the cell wall.Simply protoplas culture is defined as the art of obtaining the complete plant from the help of protoplast only. Some of its advantages are mentioned below:

  • Help to form germs free plants.
  • Can form hybride plant from two plants to one plant.

Gene transfer

DNA segment with a particular function is known as gene. In this technique gene of one plant is inserted into the other plants. It has two methods which are described below:

Direct gene transfer-In this method,directly gene of one plant is inserted into the other plant by conventional breeding,protoplast fusion etc.

Agrobacterium mediated DNA transfer Technology-In this method,gene of one plant is inserted into other plant through Agrobacterium tumefacien.

Hybirdoma technology

The technique of hybridization in which normal antibody producing plasm cells is fused with myeloma cell.this technique can.This technique can grow large in cultuer and it is the endless supply of an antibody.This technique grow biochemically pure hybridoma,so it is known as monoclonal antibody.THis sorts of antibody is used for to cure the animals' and plants' diseases.

Genetic engineering

This technology is also called the recombinant of the DNA.It the process in which the DNA of one plant is inserted into the vector such as plamid,cosmid,virus etc.The Dna which is obtained from the vector increases in number by implanting into the bacterium.All the produced DNA is used for the business purpose to synthesized proteins.

Applications of biotechnology

Biotechnology has great application in different fields such as agriculture,medicine,etc.Some of its application in different field are mentioned below:In the field of agriculture

Biotechnology has played an important role for the development of agricultuer,horticulture and forestry crops.It has many application in the different area of the agriculture which are described below:

  1. 1.Micropropagation-With the help of micropropagation technique large number of off spring can be obtained in the short duration of time.
  2. 2.Production of disease free plants-In this technique meristem tip is used for plant tissue culture.With the help this technique disease free or virus free plant can be obtained.
  3. 3.Androgenic hapliod-This is the technique in which anther is used for tissue culture to produce haploid embryos. This sorts of plants are important from the research point of view.
  4. 4.Development of resistant plants-Varities of plants can be obtained with the help of plant tissue which can resist several diseases and germs.
  5. 5.Protoplast culture and fusion-Protoplast culture can be used for several activities such as genetic manipulation and somatic cell fusion In the plants.Different non-related species hybrid can be obtained.

In the field of medicine

Biotechnology is one of rapid developing branch of modern science.It has done a considerable progess in the field of medical science. Due to the new tools and technique of the biotechnology ,it has occupie large space in the growing world of science.The application of genetic engineering and hybridoma are in very rapid develpoing phase.Some the application of biotechnology in the field of medical science are as follows:

  1. Biotechnology is use for the production of the antibodies.Simply antibodies are the protein molecules which are synthesized by B and T lymphocytes inside the body to develop an immune system.
  2. Biotechnology can be used for the production of vaccines for to cure different diseases(such polio,cancer,TB,etc) that are caused to the human as well animals.
  3. With the help of genetic engineering technique, several antibiotics and vitamins can be produced and are being used.
  4. With the application of biotechnology, gene transfer is possible in the present world. Any gene can be inserted in any body by the help of recombinantDNA technology.

In the field of fermentation

  1. 1.Yeast is used for the preparation of alcohol in large amount.
  2. 2.It is used to minimized the alcoholic percentage in different alcohol like wine.
  3. 3.Its an agent for the manufacture of idli,dosa,etc.

In the field of sewage treatment

Sewage contains different organic matter which can be decomposed by the help of different types of bacteria,fungi and algae.

In the field of bio-gas

Simply bio-gas is the gas which is formed by the formentation of different organic matter such as cow dung,farmrefuge,garbage,etc.

In the field of organic acids

Different organic acids can be produced by the help of biotechnology such as lactic acid,citric acid,acetic acid,etc.

Present status of biotechnology in Nepal

In context of Nepal,the awareness about the scope of genetic engeineering is growing rapidly.In 1976,tissue culture was started in Nepal at the National Herbarium and Plant Research Laboratory at Godawori .Generally they are performing different research such as clonal propagation of hardwood trees,horticulture crpos,medicinal plants and other activities.They have been doing work under the androgenic haploid technique as well as karyological.

In 1986,the biggest private laboratory was established named Research Laboratory for Agriculture Biotechnology and Biochemistry(RLABB).Its main purpose was to develop the agriculture and to promote the agriculture from every sector.Some other private enterprises are Botanical Enterprises,Nepal Biotech Nursery,Microplant Nepal,etc.They are profitmotive organization and they have commercialised the tissue culture.

Association associated with biotechnology development in Nepal

Those associates which are associated to the development of biotechnology in Nepal are briefly described below:

1.Nepal Biotechnology Association (NBA):

It is the non-govermental which is working in the field biotechnology.On October 7, 1988 it was established and work as NGO in 1992.It exchange different techniques of boitechnology as well as help in the develpoment of biotechnology.Some of its objectives are -

  • It lunch different awareness among the common people about the biotechnology,its scope and research related to it.
  • It maintains co-operative and friendly relation among the different national and international organization that are located in Nepal.
  • It promote and exchange different ideas and technique amongs national and international organization.

2.Nepal Molecular Biology Society (NEMBIS):

It is a non-profit making organization working under the research in the field of molecular biology.Its main aim is to promote and develop the application of research finding in thefield of molecular biology in Nepal.Some of its objectives are as follows-

  • It provide enough support and uplift the capabilities of the scientists working in the field molecular biology.
  • It suggest different govermental and non-govermental organizations to form proper rules and regulations as well as help them to bring that law in practise.

Reference:

Arvind K. Keshari,Kamak K. adhikari. A Text Book of Higher Secondary Biology. Kathmandu: Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar, 2014.

Agrawal, Sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069

Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. Kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.

Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.

1.Biotechnology is the branch of sciencewhich deals with technique that uses living organism to modify products,to improve plants and animals.

2.Plant tissue culture is the art of growing plant cell,tissue or organ artifically in the persence of suitable temperature,light,etc.

3.In 1680,leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe yeast cells.

4.Antibodies are defined as the protein molecules produced by B and T lymphocytes inside the body to diffence the micro-organism.

5. In 1986,the biggest private laboratory was established named Research Laboratory for Agriculture Biotechnology and Biochemistry(RLABB).

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