The term ‘motivation’ comes from the word ‘motive’. The motive is developed as an internal state of our mind that enhances and directs our behaviour. It helps us to functions the action. It is always internal and it shows our external behaviour. The people willingness to do the efforts towards the achieving the goal of themselves is called motivation. There are some definitions on motivation that provide the meaning of motivation in an effective way. Fred defined motivation as a method that begins with a physiological or psychological deficiency or desire that activates behaviour or a drive that helps in achieving the goal incentive and so on. Stephen P. Robbins defines that one willingness for exerting high levels of efforts toward goals of the company through the effort of satisfying the need of person. Gray and Starke tells that the outcome of internal or external method of the individual, that creates enthusiasm and persistence for pursuing the best course of action. From the above-given definitions, motivation can be described as the will for exerting towards the achieving of personal goal or need of individual and company.
As stated earlier, motivation helps in achieving the goals of the organization. The basic aspect involved in the process is motives, goals and behaviour.Motives: The human behaviour all aspects is motivated. It does not need motivation for growing the hair but the method for getting a hair cut does. Motives help people to put into the action. Hence, these are the core concept of the process of motivation. Motives are the method for determining the thrust that helps reach a goal. The desire for food and water are converted into the hunger and thrust motives. Similarly, the need for friends means the drives for affiliation.Goals: Motives is related to the objective or goals. Motives affect in the physiological or psychological method so it creates the imbalance. Achieving goals maintain the balance. For instances, a goal arises when the human being require for food or water or when the individual personality is deprived of friends or companions.Behaviour: Behavior is the task that must be undertaken. Behaviour helps or is related to achieving a goal or objective of a company. For instances, the people goes to barber for cutting their hair. The processes of motivations are shown in the Figure 17.1 as follows
The motivation is essential for various important factors some of them are given below as,
Profitability and productivity
Motivational tools help the company for leading in profitable operations. The motivated employee does their duties with full responsibility. The self-responsibility is developed among the workers by contributing for the optimum utilization of given resources such as materials, money, machines, man and others.Motivation helps in developing the working efficiency of workers. The workers which are motivated develop their skill in improving their working efficiency. The development of working efficiency between the employees enhances in maximizing the production and productivity. Management can grow organizational task in wide areas for profitability and growth.
Effective use of human resources an employee satisfaction
Manpower is the crucial aspects in the production and has the responsibility in optimum utilization of company resources. Motivation is the main method that helps in creating the ability to work among workers for doing their work in the best possible way. In other words, motivated employees utilize their skills, knowledge, capabilities etc. in the existing environment in an effective way. The organizational effectiveness is developed through the satisfaction of workers. Motivations satisfy workers and enhance the morality among them. Workers with high morale become dedication for the company. Employee performs their jobs in the effective way. Generally, workers are motivated from the facilities such as financial and non-financial. Financial facilities help in fulfilling the basic and the physiological needs. In a similar manner, promotion that helps to develop the efficiency and experience is important for fulfilling the social needs.
Minimize disputes and strikes
Motivation is an essential tool that helps in maintaining the cooperation and the feeling of harmony between the employee and management is developed. It helps to eliminate the misunderstanding and helps in solving the disputes between the management and workers. The development of internal factors helps in stimulating the employee for performing their work efficiently. The employee with the knowledge of their responsibility and return can perform their work efficiently.The basis of coordination among all members of the company is called motivation. Motivated employees enhance better ability among themselves. They deal with their mutual problems and also develop the skills for resolving the differences through contract. The main reason in this method is due to the lack of coordination. However, motivation helps to develop and enhance the coordination among the employee. The maintenance of coordination creates the spirit of the group and effort of teams for achieving the common goals.
Minimizes supervision cost and attain goals
Motivated workers do their task independently by themselves. In other words, the concept of self-responsibility is adopted among workers and they are contributed towards performing work smoothly. For such workers, it does not require much but they need only guidance and timely suggestion. Therefore, regular and direct supervision is not important for such workers. Motivation helps in reducing the cost of supervision. Every business is established for achieving definite goals. Similarly, the critical responsibility of the business is to focus on company objectives. The effort of motivated workers is done toward the attainment of objectives of business. The best utilization of human effort enhances the optimum utilization of other resources, which helps in minimizing the cost of result or service and helps in maximizing the profit.
It arises performing the behaviour or engaging in the task of learning a reward or avoiding the punishment. Examples of behaviours extrinsic motivation are as follows, you want to get a good grade so you study the books, cleaning your room for avoiding reprimanded by your parents, involving in sport for winning the awards and competing in a quota for winning the scholarship. In each of these examples, the behaviour motivation with a desire helps in gaining a reward or avoiding an adverse result.
It includes engaging in a behaviour because it is self-rewarding; essentially, perform the task for its own benefit rather than the want for some external reward. Examples of intrinsic motivation are, getting engage in the sport when you find the activity enjoyable, solving a word puzzle because you are fond for involving in a challenge that is fun and exciting, playing a game as you are interested and so on. In each of these examples, the person's behaviour is motivated through an internal requirement for participating in an activity for its own sake. So, the difference between the two types of motivation is that extrinsic motivation develops from outside of the person while intrinsic motivation develops from inside the individual. Specialists have also found that the two type of motivation can differ in the drives of the behaviour. Some studies have describes that offering external rewards for the individual who are given the internally rewarding behaviour can create in the reduction of intrinsic motivation, a phenomenon is known as the over justification effect. In one study, the people who were rewarded for playing a football had already shown their interest in playing with the football became less interested in the game after being externally rewarded. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation plays a vital role in learning settings. Some experts tell that the history or past emphasis on external rewards like grades, report cards, and gold stars defines the current intrinsic motivation that students might have. Others define that such extrinsic motivators help students in feeling the more competition in the classroom through developing and enhancing intrinsic motivation.
Dessler, Gary.a Framework for Human Resource Management.Florida: Pearson Education Asia, 2002.