The survey is motivated by a number of objectives The main objectives are.
1. Supply of information or any problem.
‘Such as how much people spend on food what detergent powder used by people etc.
2. Description of the phenomenon.
Such as social conditions their relationships behaviours. Anthropological surveys of small communities socio-economic surveys describing a living condition of the people of a region may be cited as illustrations of this kind. The purpose of these surveys is to collect general information and they are not meant to prove or disprove anything.
3. Explanation of the phenomenon.
Many enquiries are aimed to explain rather than to describe a phenomenon. Before we start survey we must have the hypothesis to test. Necessary data collection would be specific and purposive.
Surveys are classified into various types according to the subject matter technique of data collection and regularity of their conductions.
1. General and specific survey.
When a survey is conducted for gathering general information about any population institution, a phenomenon without any particular objective or hypothesis., it is known as a general survey. Such surveys are generally conducted by or for government organisation for a supply of regular data on socio-economical condition.
Specific surveys are conducted for problems or for testing the validity of some theory or hypothesis. These surveys are naturally pointed ones and only such information as are related to the specific purpose of the survey is collected.
3. Regular and Ad hoc surveys.
Some surveys are regular or natural and must be repeated at regular intervals. Example include Family Budget surveys, Demographic sample surveys etc.
Ad hoc surveys are occasionally surveys with no regularity of its conduction. Ad hoc surveys are taken once for all and undertaken mostly for testing a hypothesis or supplementing some missing information regarding any research problem.
4. Census and Sample surveys.
If each and every unit of a universe is contacted and information about him/art are collected, then such inquiry is called a sample survey.
Sometimes , a population is divided into different subpopulation samples of each sub-population are taken and the survey is conducted on this sample. Such survey is often called census sample survey. Example Agricultural sample census of Nepal.
But the true meaning of the census is any survey done for simple enumeration of different aspects of the variables involved and a sample survey is a survey done for the purpose of establishing cause and effect relationship pf the variable.
5. Preliminary and final surveys.
A small-scale survey conducted to get first-hand knowledge of population to be surveyed and necessary information about planning the main survey is called preliminary survey.
Final survey is the main survey conducted after the preliminary survey.
6. Baseline and Evaluation surveys.
Before launching any development programs, the socio-economic data (also called baseline data ) of the population are collected. The process of collecting such information is called baseline survey.
The survey conducted after the completion of programs is called the evaluation survey. The main emphasis in this survey is to use the same sample units that were used at the time of baseline survey. Comparative figures in these two surveys provide the relative measures of the impacts of the program.
7. Multi-purpose and Multi-subjects surveys.
The term Multi-purpose is sometimes used in connection with sample surveys. Conducted in various fields of interest for several departments/organisations/ parties keeping in view of their diverse purpose.
Multi-subject surveys refer to a single survey operation which simultaneously investigates several subjects, not necessary closely related, for the sake of economy and convenience. The data on different subjects need not necessary be obtained for the same set of sampling units or even for the same type of units. (households, fields, schools etc).
6. Vertical and integrated surveys.
In verticle survey , only a single topic is taken for investigation whereas, in an integral surveys data of several topics is taken for investigation whereas, in an integral survey, data of several topics are collected from the same set of sampling units, data of several topics are collected from the same set of sampling units for studying the relationship among variables belonging to different subjects (fields). Such surveys are of special importance in studies related to a level of living miscellaneous.
Market Research survey.
Market research has been the feature of commerce for decades. Whether through its executives, salesmen or professional advisors, every firm or company try to study its market and its marketing methods. In past, this survey was a mere descriptive survey. However, since 1930;s the approach of this survey has become more scientific.
The broad objective of the marketing surveys done by firms are.
The market research provides the firm's key information about consumers as regards their tastes, purchasing capacity and expectations so they can supply their products and then bridge the gap between supply and decreasing demands.
Initially conducted as a part of market researcher for assessing the changes in demands, tastes of consumers, supply of goods in markets they have recently developed as a very popular surveys to project the views of the populations, popularity of national parties, political leader condition of the country corruptions, popularity of national parties, political leader, and project the outcomes of electronics etc.
They have regularly conducted in many countries to senses the changes in the demographic indicator such as population growth rate, sex, rations Fertility, Mortality and martial rates. In Nepal, this surveys was conducted every year for the period 1973-1976.
Kerlinger, F.N. Foundation of Behavioural Research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publication, 2000.
Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology. India: Vishwa Prakashan, 1990.
Singh, M.L. and J.M Singh. Understanding Research Methodology. 1998.
Singh, Mrigendra Lal. Understanding Research Methodology. Nepal: National Book centre, 2013.