Note on Introduction. types, steps sources of case and conventional research method.

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Case study.

Case study is the intensive investigation of a single unit. The unit may be a single a family, a social group, institution or phenomenon. The main purpose of the case study research is viewing social reality and to understand the important aspect of the life cycle of the social unit. Case study involves measurement, looking what is there and how it got there in historical approach.

In a case of study research the researcher collects the information about the units and analysis the sequences and inter relationship of the collected facts and draw a conclusion from it.

It enable us to explore unravel and understood problems, issues and relationship in a particular situations. It cannot, however, allow us to generalize the research that is to argue that from one case study, the results, finding or theories developed apply to the similar studies.

In case of study, the data are collected through

  1. Analysis of recorded data from news papers, schools, colleges, courts or other sources.
  2. Observation of behaviour characteristic and social qualities.
  3. Use of questionnaire schedule.
  4. Interviewing the subjects, friends relatives and other.

The case study research can be divided into two groups.

  1. Exploratory studies.
  2. Hypothesis testing.

Exploratory studies.

It seeks to discover significant variable and the relationship between them. The relationship between variables is predicated on the type of the study.

Hypothesis testing.

It is used for testing the relationship between various variable. Here the researcher would be seeking data perhaps from a number of different case study, situations aimed at proving or disproving the validity of the relationship hypothesis.

The advantage of case studies methods.

  1. It provides opportunity or direct observation of social interaction and relationship.
  2. It is usually carried out in a realiatic situations of a life like a school college factory community etc. It avoids the artificially laboratory experiments.

The disadvantage of case study.

The disadvantage of the case study are as follows.

  1. Generally, field situations where case studies are carried out are sp complex.
  2. In the case of study, there are a longer number of variables which cannot be fully controlled as in experimental method.

Sources of case study.

The sources of the case study are as follows.

  1. Data obtained from exploratory observations.
  2. Personal documents of individuals or organisations.
  3. Life history of persons or a organisations.
  4. Data obtained through interviews.

The nature of the source depends on the nature of the study topic.

Steps in a case study.

These steps are

  1. The investigator determines the present situation.
  2. Background information is collected. It helps a researcher to compile a list of possible cause of a current problem.
  3. The background of the information collected is analysed for possible hypothesis. The hypothesis which clearly cannot stand up tp the evidence collected are discarded.
  4. The hypothesis developed is tested.
  5. The aim is to check that the hypothesis tested actually work in practice.

Some action, correction or improvement is made and check is carried out on the situation to see what effect the change has brought about.

Limitation.

It gateher the enough information so as to set up hypothesis. However, case study is meaningless in researching situations where imprrtant variable have been already identified conclusively, case study lacks to determine precise relationship btween variables.

  1. The danger of false generalizations is always there is view of the fact that no set rules are followed in collection of the information and only few units are studied.
  2. It consumes more time and expenditure.
  3. Case study method is based on several assumptions which may not be very realistic at times and as such the usefulness of case data is always subject to doubt.
  4. Case syudy method can be used only in a limited sphere, it is not possible to use it in case of a big society. Sampling is also not possible under a case study method,.
  5. A response of the investigator is an important limitation of the case study method. He often that he has full knowledge of the until and can himself answer about it.

In case the same is not true, then consequences follow. Infact, this is more the faultr of the researcher rather than that of the case method.

Conventional methods.

The Scientific method as described in chapter first. It consists of four following logical steps.

  1. Hypothesis setting.
  2. The method of development.
  3. Gathering of data.
  4. Drawing conclusion.

Self correcftion and objectivity are the main characteristics of scientifioc study.

Resonating processes.

Drawing conclusion by the investigators have two methods of resonating. They are inductive and deductive methods. Inductive is a process of making inference from specific to general instances. There are four conditions necessary for effective induction. They are.

  1. Observation must be correctly performed and accurately recorded.
  2. Observations must cover the causes that represents the population from which they are drawn.
  3. Observation must cover sufficient number of cases.
  4. Conclusions must be confined only to the statements.

In deductive resonating involves from general to the particular . Two conditions are essential They are.

  1. The general principle or rule must be corrected.
  2. It must be applied to those causes that probably come under its scope.

The conclusion drawn from searching with above condition fulfill eith stand to rigorous scrutiny.

Reference.

Kerlinger, F.N. Foundation of Behavioural Research. New Delhi: Surjeet Publication, 2000.

Kothari, C.R. Research Methodology. India: Vishwa Prakashan, 1990.

Singh, M.L. and J.M Singh. Understanding Research Methodology. 1998.

Singh, Mrigendra Lal. Understanding Research Methodology. Nepal: National Book center, 2013.

  1. A case study is the intensive investigation of a single unit.
  2. It gathers the enough information so as to set up the hypothesis. However, a case study is meaningless in researching situations where the important variable has been already identified conclusively, case study lacks to determine the precise relationship between variables.
  3. Here the researcher would be seeking data perhaps from a number of the different case study, situations aimed at proving or disproving the validity of the relationship hypothesis.

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