The Selection Process, Selection Tests, Interviews and Their Types
Process of selection
Preliminary Interview, Employment Interview and Job Offer, the objective of interviews is to unselect unqualified applications from information supplied in application forms. The basic goal helps in rejecting misfits. On the other hands, it is also known as courtesy interview and develops public relations. Jobseeker selected in these interviews has to give tests. The types of tests are conducted on the basis of jobs and the firms.
Another process in selection is employment interview. Here interview must not be informal and must have core conversation between applicant’s acceptability. This method is used as the excellent selection device. The methods of an interview are One-to-One, Panel Interview, or Sequential Interviews, Structured and Unstructured interviews, Behavioral Interviews, Stress Interviews. The selection method includes job offer for those applicants who have passed all the hurdles for recruitment. The letter of appointment is used for offering the job. In this stage, the candidates are offered for accepting or rejecting the job assigned to them.
Selection Decision and physical examination, after collecting the information, the most important step in the selection decision has to be done. The last decision must be made for the candidates who have passed preliminary interviews, tests, final interviews and reference checks. The line manager decisions are considered generally because the line manager is responsible for the performance of the new employee. After the selection, the candidate is must do a physical fitness test. The test includes Aptitude Tests, Personality Tests, and Ability Tests and such test are conducted for judging individual performance related to the job. Besides this test we also have other tests such as Interest Tests, Graphology Test (Handwriting), Medical Tests, Psychometric Tests etc.
Selection, the activity where the company selects a limited number of candidates from a various number of applicants is called selection. The appointment of the workers to fill the vacancies of the company is called selection. The means of placing the right person at the right job is called selection. We all know that there are large numbers of people applying for one job at the time of recruitment, where the recruiters must decide which candidate fits right for the potential job. The selection method requires lots time because the human resources managers identify the qualification for every candidate of the post. Similarly qualification, background, age, and so on are the essential factors where they pay more attention. Finally, the writing exam and interview is a complex activity.
Types of selection tests
There are two types of selection tests they are,
(I) Ability Tests and
(ii) Personality Tests.
Tests that lie in this category are shown in the following chart 7.1
The abilities test is further divided into,
Aptitude test is used for measuring the ability and skills of the selected candidates. These tests help in measuring and indicating the performance of employee after training and but not their action. Thus, aptitude tests help in predicting the upcoming ability/performance of an employee. There involve two goals in developing the aptitude tests. One is to assist young about the field of task where they are likely to succeed also known as ‘vocational guidance’. Second, involve selecting best workers which help them to succeed also known as ‘vocational selection’. Specific aptitude test is being developed for identifying special abilities foe performing a job. Examples include Mechanical Aptitude Test, Clerical Aptitude Test, Artistic Aptitude Test, Musical Aptitude Test, Management Aptitude Test, Differential Aptitude Test, and so on.
Achievement tests are used for determining a person’s potential in area/job. In other words, these tests determine employee based on skill or knowledge which is developed by him/her. Achievement tests have seen useful in the academic institutions. The grades in previous examinations are used for indicating of achievement and potential for learning in achievement tests. Nepali company have been ever ready conducting these tests that help in judging themselves in the level of proficiency attained rather than understanding scores in academic examinations. The names, proficiency tests, performance, occupational or trade tests are included in achievement tests. The tests resemble of aptitude tests called achievement tests. However, the difference in the outcome is always there. The difference between achievement and aptitude is very transparent in accordance with the past achievement and performance. The differences between them are given with an example. When we ask an individual for studying the paper of human resource management then we can know about his ‘achievement’. But the student is tested for seeing weather he would gain from certain training to the subject, it is known as ‘aptitude’.
Intelligence test is measured to identify ability for intellectual performance. The important factor for intelligence test is mental age. It is related to the physical age where intelligence also grows. Exceptions may arise here. Such as if six-year-old child does the test, for seven years mental age would be determined on such basis. The formula of IQ is IQ= Mental Age/Actual Age × 100 It means that the ratio of mental age to actual age multiplying by 100(to remove decimal) is also called IQ. IQ levels may differ due to culture and exposure. The various levels of IQs as below:
Personality inventories are also known as Personality tests. These tests determine predispositions, motivations and lasting interests of the people. Personality tests are given below,
These tests are developed for discovering an individual area of interest and identify the type of task that will satisfy him. Interest is a one of the basic measures successfully performance of some task. These tests define the beginning of the vocational efforts. The most common interest test is Kadar Reference Record, which includes three types as, The first type determine vocational interest such as mechanical, computational, artistic, literary, musical and clerical interest. Interests in individual sectors such as group activities, avoiding conflicts etc., are measured by the second type of interest tests. The third form of interest test is related to the preference on occupations such as accountant, salesman, farmer, etc. The best-known interest three forms of interest test are vocational test.
These tests are also defined on the basis of personality inventories. These tests are developed for measuring the dimensions of personality such as personality traits which include interpersonal competence, introversions, self-confidence, ability to lead and ambition. The personality tests are also called as the Minnesota Multiphase and California Personality Inventory.
The personality dimensions are as follows
Attitude tests are developed for knowing the candidate tendencies towards favouring people, situations, actions, and a host of such other things. Attitudes are the action of the respondents because of emotion disregard the observed or measure the attitude of the candidate. Example of attitude tests is desirability, authoritarianism, study of values, Machiavellianism and employees morale.
Interview and its types
The interview is the indispensable Management tool. The procedure for designing to solicit information from candidate responses to speaking inquiries is called interview. Selection interview helps to select the method that is designed for predicting future job performance with the help of the applicants’ responses to inquiries. The job analyst and supervisor have close relationship and both of them perform the task together for identifying the employee who knows the job best. Quickly establish rapport with the person you are interviewing. Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open-ended questions and provides space for answers. Tell the employee for listing their duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. After completing the interview the supervisor must review and verify the data collected by interviewing the candidate.
Workers desire economics things to do these days, so most of them use the first screening rounds with the help of Ma Bell's. Upside: Preparing notes and keeping them in front of you while you are talking with someone. Also, the inability to present ties during the process is a big plus! Downside: It's often difficult for people that talk to a person for getting energised. Strategy: The people who warm up or who like to read an interviewer's face when talking have hope of getting success. About few minutes in an interview, you must be in a quiet place, must not open your eyes, and visualise a time when you were really successful at something. It could be final month at a sales presentation or even when you won a car in racing games. Hold memory for several minutes and get the positive energy from it. Remember your place, people in that place, what people said to you about it and feelings, colours, smells and sounds you recall. When the phone rings, at last, your voice will be energetic as it essentially seems alive over the wires.
The case interview is used torturing the people consulting, finance and executive positions. Problem: Case interviews measure the ability to solve the problem and analytical thinking around corners with imagination data in front of you. Questions such as, "Why are manholes round?" or "How many pizzas are eaten in Nepal each year?" are just for warming-ups. Sometimes problems like "Toyota is releasing the new model. What issues does the organisation must think about?" Strategy: It's not possible to become the logical thinkers that have business savvy overnight if you're not one of them. But it is possible to subscribe The Globe and Mail, take a logic course, read some books, or contact the Bain & Company consulting firm for a copy of its monograph "How to Ace the Case Interview."
In a time where the egos and "creative" resume operation, behavioural interviews involve lots of important questions. Problem: Worker wants evidence that helps in backing up possibly exaggerated claims. Strategy: Don't even think about saying, "My company skills are top and best," without any one or two examples of skills that you used. For every non-negative description you plan to prepare a STAR analysis:
** S = SITUATION that you tends to involve into
** T = The TASK you must complete within a limited time
** A = describe ACTION you are taking to solve problems
** R = RESULTS of your actions must be told to the supervisor
Patterned, depth and stress Interview:
In this interview, the pattern of the interview is determined for future, for instance, the type of information that must be given, the interview which must be conducted, and the time that is allotted to it, all these are worked out in today for future. In case candidates are guided back for the structured questions. Such interviews are defined as standardised interviews. When the team is defined, depth of interview to the candidate arises in detail. It describes the past of the candidates along with their work experience, academic qualifications, health, attitude, interest, and hobbies. This method is effective in selection of executive. Expectedly, depth interview is time-consuming and costly. Such interviews are involved in the jobs that must perform in stress. The stress interview makes deliberate attempts by developing stressful or strained conditions for the candidates by observing the behaviour of candidates under stressful conditions. The mostly used type for inducing stress involve frequent interruptions, keeping silent for an extended period of time, asking too many questions at a time, making derogatory remarks about the candidate, accusing him that he is lying and so on. The goal is to see the behaviour of candidates under the stressful conditions where he loses his temper, gets confused or frightened.
Dessler, Gary.a Framework for Human Resource Management.FloridaPearson Education Asia, 2002
- Aptitude test is used for measuring the ability and skills of the selected candidates. These tests help in measuring and indicating performance of employee after training and but not their action.
- Achievement tests are used for determining a person’s potential in area/job. In other words, these tests determine employee based on skill or knowledge which is developed by him/her. Achievement tests have seen useful in the academic institutions.
- The tests that are determined by pictures or incomplete items are called projective tests. The candidate is asked for narrating or projecting their own interpretation on these. The way of responding candidate values, motives, attitude, apprehensions, personality, etc is through projective tests.
- The interview is the indispensable Management tool. The procedure for designing to solicit information from candidate responses to speaking inquiries is called interview.
- These tests are also defined on the basis of personality inventories. These tests are developed for measuring the dimensions of personality such as personality traits which include interpersonal competence, introversions, self-confidence, ability to lead and ambition.
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