People of Nepal
People of Nepal
The 11th national population census conducted from June 17 to 27, 2011 AD all over the country, found that the annual growth rate of population in Nepal is 1.35%. According to the preliminary report, the total population of Nepal is 26,494,504 with the sex ratio of 94.41 male populations per 100 female. The report states that 83 percent population lives in the rural area whereas only 17 percent of the population lives in the urban area. Similarly, according to the results, Terai constitutes 50.15% of the population of Nepal while hill constitutes 43.10% and mountain constitutes 6.75%.
Population size and distribution
- Population by age composition
Age is a biological and social classification of human beings. The age grows gradually after the birth of human beings. It is a continuous process. The study of a population on the basis of age is known as age composition. It is very important to form various plans for different age group. It is calculated in two ways: economically active and economically inactive. The person between age group 15-59 years are known as economically active population whereas the age group of 0-14 years and 60 over years lie under economically inactive population. Nepal has almost equal dependent population to independent population which indicates low economic savings and has created disturbance in development.
- Population by sex composition
The population can be studied on the basis of sex and sex ratio is known as sex composition. The population in the society needs to be balanced on the basis of gender which helps in natural growth of population, structure, and make-up of the population. The balanced population helps to maintain balance in the social institutions like family, marriage and it lays positive impact in the society. The equal number of males and females help in maintaining balance in the sex ratio.
- Population by caste composition
The study of population on the basis of caste is called caste composition. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multicultural country. There are varieties of caste including those ethnic groups, Dalits, Brahman, Chhetri, Madheshi and Muslim. The several castes like Kusunda, Elmo, Raute and Munda are in the state of disappearing. They are less than 1000 in number.
- Population by language composition
The ethnic groups have their own mother tongues. According to census 2001, there are 92 mother tongues in Nepal. Among them, some of the languages and the percentage of the speakers are found in different ratio.
- Population by religion composition
Though Nepal is a secular country there are a significant number of people who follows Hindu religion in Nepal. The Hindus who are Aryans are supposed to have entered to Nepal from the southeast part and the Buddhist who are Mongols are supposed to have entered from the northern part of Nepal.
- Population by ecological composition
The report states that 83 percent of population lives in rural areas whereas only 17 percent of the population lives in urban areas. According to the results, Terai constitutes 50.15 percent of the population of Nepal while hill constitutes 43.10 percent and mountains 6.75 percent.
Fertility, Mortality, and Migration of the inhabitance of Mountain, Hill and Terai
Fertility is the birth or incoming process which increases the size of the population of a particular place. The high rate of fertility causes the high growth in population and vice versa. It is related to the offspring. It is the natural cause of population growth. The rate of fertility is influenced by various factors which are as below:
- Biological factors: Ovulation, age, lactation, health, miscarriages, hereditary, etc.
- Economic factors: Profession, economic conditions, employment status, level of nutrition, etc.
- Socio-culture factors: Family structure, marriage system and age of marriage, gender status or sex preference, educational status, female status, concept towards family planning and its accessibility, legality of abortion, socio-cultural practices and taboo etc.
- Psychological factors: Desire for parenthood, virility or maleness, sexual desire, frustrate etc.
- Natural factors: Climate, geographical condition, natural phenomena etc.
- Political factors: Law, fertility policy, abortion policy, legal determination of marital age etc.
Mortality is the death or outgoing process which decreases the size of population of a particular place. The high rate of mortality causes the high rate of population decrease. It is also the natural cause of population change. The rate of mortality is influenced by various factors which are as below:
- Old age
- Accident and natural disasters
- Illiteracy and perception on disease
- Weak economic condition of family and low quality of life
- Lack of health services and medical facilities
- Traditional treatment system and superstition
- Problem in nutrition and sanitation
- Mental tension and streets, depression
- People’s profession
- Improper state policy
- Lack of knowledge on avoiding and defending natural disasters
Migration is the process of changing settlements, temporarily or permanently from a place of origin to the place of destination by any individual for various purposes. It brings changes in population of both places as it decreases the population size at the place of origin and increases the size of population at the place of destination. The people who involve in migration process are said to be migrants. The process of migration is influenced by various pull and push factors some of them are as follows:
- Employment opportunities and people's profession
- Favorable geographical and environmental conditions
- Feeling of social and cultural security
- Fertile and arable land and suitable land structure
- Peaceful political situation
- Family structure and relatives
- Economic condition of family
- Population structure of a place and settlement planning
- Market situation, opportunity of economic progress, business and investment
Pluralism and Diversity
The various society are different in terms of language, culture, customs, lifestyle, religion, history, profession, gender, caste, classes, geography, ideology and so forth which we say diversity. The suitable living environment of such diversity which guarantees the coexistence of such socio-cultural diversity is called pluralism. It includes such different believes, culture, customs, interaction, and cooperation, in such situation, every bodies identity and existence are granted by the society and state. In many societies, pluralism is not possible in spite of social diversity. In such societies, all religion, politics, ideology, culture and language are not given equal identities where minorities do not feel secure. Nepalese society and culture is based on diversity. There is ethnic, cultural, lingual, religious diversity as well. Each group has their own original and traditional cultural fabrics that's why Nepalese society is pluralist.
Culture is the life style of people. The language, art, behaviors, technology, thinking pattern, literature and inventions created by human beings in the society is called culture. From the perspective of culture, Nepalese society is diverse. On the bases of religion, there are Hindus, Muslim, Buddhist, Christian, Kirats, Sikhs and Jains. In spite of cultural diversity, people live in harmony with the sense of coexistence.
Nepali society is diverse on the basis of population. There are people of different origin. Among them, there are 59 ethnic groups. Similarly, there are other castes like: Brahman, Chhetries, Dalits, Madheshi and Thakuris etc living in Nepal. So, we can see that there is ethnic diversity in Nepalese society. Throughout the history, there are no rational and ethnic conflicts.
- Caste or ethnic groups
Nepal is the country of diversities on the basis of caste and ethnicity. There are people of different origin. Among them, there are 59 ethnic groups. Similarly, there are other castes like Brahman, Chhetries, Dalits, Madheshi, Thakuris, etc living in Nepal. So, we can see that there is ethnic diversity in Nepalese society. Throughout the history, there are no rational and ethnic conflicts. Voices are raised for inclusion and representation of all caste in policy making level which seems justifiable.
Nepalese society is diverse on the basis of class. Class is basically a process of determining level of people on the basis of economy. So, social groups can be divided into different classes like: high, middle and low. When we analyze Nepalese society on the basis of class, there are majority of lower class. The distribution of poverty seems unequal, rural poverty is higher as compared to the poverty in urban area.
Nepalese society is poor on the basis of economy. Very limited urban people are rich. So, the Nepalese society is divided into rich, middle and poor class on the basis of economy. The lifestyle and way of living are different according to their economic status.
- Political diversity
Nepal has entered the republican political system. The political system in the past was monarch centered but in present Nepali society, we can see political diversity. Different political parties can exercise freely without any restriction from the state. Many national, regional and small political parties are in existence.
Kharel, Durga, Elementary Sociology and Anthropology-XII
Sharma, Kamal Raj, Introduction to Sociology and anthropology in Nepal-XII, Sunrise Prakasan Pvt., Ltd., Kathmandu
Pokharel, Ishwor, Sociology-XII, Ekta Books and Distributors, Kathmandu
- The distribution of population on the basis of age, caste, gender, religion, language and geography can be understood through the study of its structure.
- Fertility is the birth or incoming process which increases the size of population of the particular place.
- Mortality is the death or outgoing process which decreases the size of the population of the particular place.
- Migration is the process of changing settlement which is influenced by various geographical and environmental factors
- The suitable living environment of such diversity which guarantees the coexistence of socio-cultural diversity is called pluralism.
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