The method which identifies and prepares potential candidates for filling the application form is called recruitment. Recruitment is the beginning phase of process of employment. Recruitment motivates the potential applicants for filling the application form for the job. After forecasting the demand and wants of human resource in a company, the manager of a human resource begins with identifying the sources of human resource. Recruitment is the way for bringing potential people for the right position, at the right time for performing company task for achieving the goals. Recruitment identifies and attracts a pool of applicant for filling the vacancies of the company. Recruitment develops applications for given positions in order to be filled in the company. In other words, the method of finding and attracting capable applicants for Job is called recruitment. Hence, theoretically recruitment method ends after receiving the applications. It is defined as a positive process because it helps in attracting a large number of competent candidates who apply for the job if it is offered. It is said finally that, the way for searching for and securing candidates for the right position to be filled is known as recruitment. It defines human resource need by generating the pool of candidates for company vacancies. It helps in developing various sources of manpower. Recruitment is defined as identifying different sources of expertise supply, assessing candidate validity, helps in choosing the most suitable source and inviting applications from various candidates. Recruitment starts by preparing human resources planning and conducting job analysis. Therefore, relationship with human resource activities is developed in the recruitment process.
The jobs are available for the competent candidate through various sources. These sources can be split into two categories, shown below,
Promotions and Transfers
The promotion is defined as a motivational technique for the workers working hard and showing better quality at their performance. Promotion enhances the candidate so it helps to pay, position, responsibility and authority. The essential needs for promotion putting into practice are the terms, conditions, rules and regulations that are well-defined. Candidates may be rotated from one place to another wherever the post becomes vacant.
Employees, Retirements and internal advertisement
The workers who had performed goods at their tenure may are called back, and with paying them reasonable wages and incentives. The workers who are retired may be given the expansion in their service in no suitable candidates for the post is available. The current workers can be interested in taking up the jobs that are vacant. After working in the organisation for a long time, they have full knowledge about the specification and description of the vacant job. The advertisement inside the organisation is circulated so that the workers become intimated.
Benefits of Internal Sources of Recruitment:
The current workers are motivated. Cheap as there is no need to give advertise about the vacancy in the organisation. The loyalty among the worker towards the company is developed. The training is not required because the workers already know about the type of job they are required for performing. The internal sources are one of the most reliable and easy methods of recruitment.
Limitations of Internal Sources of Recruitment:
The technology and innovative ideas that the new candidates have do not get the chance for showing their skills. The former workers may not be as efficient as before in their way of doing the works. The workers who do not get promotion or selected are not motivated and lead the company towards failure. It may develop the favouritism. The good interest of the company is lacked.
Advertisement is used for recruiting skilled employee, clerical and top level staff. Advertisement is done through newspapers and professional journals. These advertisement's purpose is to attract a large number of candidate with highly variable quality. Effective advertisement development is a complex activity. For the company to conceal its name, blind advertisement to the applicants is provided for applying to some advertising agency. A diversify way of selecting the appropriate candidate is only possible with this source. It provides everyone information about the vacant posts and the details of job description and job specification that are available to general public.
Schools, Colleges and Universities:
The educational institution recruitment has become most effective for certain jobs placement where technical or professional qualification is necessary and this method is commonly used in today. A close relationship between the organisation and university helps to get suitable candidates. The course of employee study has been seen by company. Junior level executives or managerial trainees necessary for company are identified and recruited accordingly.
Recommendation of Existing Employees and employment exchanges
The current workers have an idea about the company and the applicants who are being recommended. Hence some organisations motivate their current workers for assisting them in getting applications from people who they know. The rewards are provided to existing employee if candidates recommended by them are actually selected by the firm. Some time recommends may develop favouritism that may impair the morale of workers. In India the Government exchange employee. For the unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled, clerical posts etc., the company can use the source of recruitment. The obligatory for the firm is concerned with identifying their vacancies to the employment exchange. Traditionally the workers turn to these agencies only as a last resort. The job-seekers and job givers relationship is developed through the employment exchanges.
Factory Gates and Casual Callers
Some workers are identified at the factory gate every day for jobs. This method of recruitment in Nepal is increasing for unskilled or semi-skilled labour. The competent candidates are selected, middle-level supervisors. The disadvantage of this system is when any person is selected that selected person may not be suitable for the vacancy. Those people that come in organisation for job can also be considered for the vacant post. It is cost saving method of recruitment. In the countries that are developed, this method of is very popular.
Labor Unions and contractors
The job such as construction, hotels, maritime industry etc, such as industries where there is instability of job many people come from unions. It benefits from the management point of view because cost is low for recruitment. However, in other company, unions may be asked to recommend candidates either as a goodwill gesture or as a courtesy towards the union. This method of recruitment is still used in Nepal which helps in hiring unskilled and semi-skilled workers in the company. The contractors maintain relationship with the labour and which helps to bring the workers at the places where they are necessary. The commission is provided for the contractor for the number of persons they supply.
Former Employees and other sources
In most of the case the workers have left the factory at their own will, they can be taken back if they show interest to joining the job if their record is good.There are not only source of external recruitment, there are other sources as well that are developed by the organisation from time to time. The lectures were given by recruiter in different college and these lectures recruited directly. Another includes video films that are sent to different institutions for showing the history and development of the organisation. These films show past and present performance and culture of the company to different audiences which help to create interest in them. Various businesses are developed to show trade shows that can attract many prospective workers. Sometimes advertisements are developed for a special class of workforce such as married women who worked prior for their marriage. These women can be good source of work in an organisation. Similarly, the labour market includes physically handicapped people.
Benefits and Limitation of External Sources of Recruitment:
New applicants with the expertise skill get the opportunity. The best selection can be easily made as a large number of applicants will be there for applying for the job. When there are no candidates within the company, it is better to select them from outside sources.Skilled and ambitious workers may be in the organisation for a short period of time. Such activities create insecurity among the working workers. It will be more costly as advertisement must be conducted through the press and the training facilities require for new candidates.
Recruitment methods are defined when the company find the potential job seekers. There include a different method for developing the contacts with the potential candidates.lt is necessary to understand that the recruitment methods are not as same as the sources of recruitment. The major difference between sources and methods are that to establish links between the prospective candidates and find the place where the candidates are available. Dunn and Stephen classify methods of recruitment into three different terms.
In this method, the company representatives meet with candidates in the educational and other organisation. They develop contacts with the people who seek the jobs. These representatives came from the coordination with the institutions where the people have knowledge of management; engineering, medical etc. Sometimes, some these people establish direct contact with the professors that help them to find information about students with excellent skills. The recruiter is sent to the conventions, seminars, setting up exhibits at fairs and using mobile are the methods that help in establishing direct contact with the candidates.
The advertisements in newspapers, on the radio and television, in professional journals, technical magazines etc are the example of indirect method. The indirect are used at the time when the company is unable to find suitable applicants for promoting the higher posts. When the company diversify to a vast territory, and when filling up scientific, professional and technical. The experience suggests that when filling the higher the position in the company the use of effective advertisement can be used for finding the many suitable candidates. Sometimes, many companies use blind advertisement in which only Box No. is given and the identity of the company is restricted. However, the regional or national reputation of the company is not restricted by usually using blind advertisements for obvious reasons. While using the organisation you must know about, to the type of the candidate you are recruiting, the benefit the job will offer must be listed, must decide the place for running the advertisement, for example, television with local, state, nationwide and international reach or circulation.
Third Party Methods:
The use of private employment agencies, consultants, professional specialists, referral/recommendations, voluntary company, unions, data banks, labour contractors etc. is involved by the third party for establishing the relationship with the candidates. Now, a question has developed the type of particular method that we use for recruiting candidate in the company. The answer depends on the policy and procedure of the particular company, the labour position, the regulations and rules of government in this regard and contract with labour companies.
Dessler, Gary.a Framework for Human Resource Management.Florida Pearson Education Asia, 2002.