Notes on Sexual Reproduction in Fern | Grade 10 > Science > Reproduction | KULLABS.COM

Sexual Reproduction in Fern

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  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Videos
  • Exercise
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Life Cycle

The life cycle of fern plant completes in two phases:-

  • Sporophyte (Asexual)
  • Gametophyte (sexual)

Sporophytic generation:-

This stage involves theuse of spores. The plant structure is diploid (2n). Sori are the dark brown structures plant on the under surface of fern-leaves.

Sporangium:- (Bursting)

The sporangium is the sac-like structure which bears spore mother cells and spores in fern. When the spores get mature, they are released out by bursting of the sporangium.

Inside the sporangium spore mother cells are present. The spore mother cells (2n) meiotically divides and produces four spores (n).

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What do you mean by sporophytic generation in fern plant?

Ans: It is the stage of asexual reproduction in the life cycle of fern plant which occurs with the help of spores.

Gametophyte :-

This stage involves male gamete called antherozoids and female gametes called eggs.

When the haploid spores are set free into the soil, they start germinating under the favourable condition i.e. presence of moisture, air and enough sunlight. The germinating spore produces prothallus.

Prothallus is the green, flat and heart-shaped structure in the life cycle of the fern plant. It serves as the breeding ground for gametes. Prothallus has the capacity of photosynthesis. The energy required to grow gametes is provided by it. Rhizoids are the root-like structures that grow at the base of the prothallus and help prothallus to anchor. Rhizoids also function as roots as they absorb water and minerals from the soil.

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The male reproductive organ in fern is Antheridia. Antheridia contain male gametes "The Antherozoids". It grows just above rhizoids. Each antheridium is circular in shape and has nearly 32 antherozoid mother cells. These antherozoid mother cells give rise to spiral shaped antherozoids. Antherozoids move with the help of flagella (tail). The female reproductive organ in fern is Archegonia. Archegonia contain female gametes "The Eggs". Archegonia grows near the top of the prothallus. Each archegonium is divided into two parts lower "venter" and upper "neck". Venter allows the place to grow female egg and neck allows passage for antherozoids to reach egg cell.

When archegonia and antheridia mature, archegonia secretes the malic acid which directs antherozoids to reach the egg for fertilization. The fertilization takes place in prothallus when freely swimming antherozoid fuses with the egg(generally anchored to the prothallus). From there diploid structure, fern germinates.

Note: Up until Bryophyta, gametes (male) need water to move around and reach female gamete. But from Pteridophyta gametes don't need water for fertilization (fertilization base is provided by prothallus). This way plants are evolving to adapt to land. As we go up in the classification need of water for fertilization is decreasing. These plants can be called as true land plants.

Alternation of generation:-

The occurrence of sporophytic and gametophytic one after the other in fern plant is called alternation of generation.

OR

The life cycle of fern completes in (2 stage), the sporophyte (2n) and the gametophyte (n). The two stages occur one after the other to complete the life cycle. This process is known as alternation of generation.

  • Alternation of generation in a diagram.

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Draw the labelled diagram of archegonium.

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  • Fern can reproduce sexually with the help of antheridia and archegonia. 
  • The male reproductive organ in fern is Antheridia. Antheridia contain male gametes "The Antherozoids". It grows just above rhizoids. Each antheridium is circular in shape and has nearly 32 antherozoid mother cells.
  • Archegonia grows near the top of the prothallus. Each archegonium is divided into two parts lower venter and upper neck.
  • When archegonia and antheridia mature, archegonia secretes the malic acid which directs antherozoids to reach the egg for fertilization.
.

Questions and Answers

Click on the questions below to reveal the answers

Sporophytic generation begins from the formation of a diploid oospore. This oospore grows mitotically to form the sporophyte. The sporophyte bears fronds. Each leaflet of a frond is called sporophyll. The sporophyll has many sori. Each sorus bears many sporangia. One sporangium has many spore mother cells that are diploid in nature. Spore mother cells are the last stage of sporophytic generation and divide by meiosis.

Gametophytic generation begins when spore mother cells divide meiotically to produce haploid spores. Each spore germinates into a fern gametophyte called prothallus. The prothallus contains male reproductive parts called antheridia that produce antherozoids and female reproductive parts called archegonia that produce ovum. Formation of haploid gametes is the last stage of gametophytic generation.

Prothallus is the fern gametophyte. When haploid spore gets favorable conditions, it germinates into a prothallus. The prothallus is green, leafy and heart shaped in structure. It bears many spherical antheridia towards the tapering end and the antheridia produce antherozoids. Many flask shaped archegonia are present in the upper part. Each archegonium produces a haploid ovum. Prothallus is attached to the substratum with the help of rhizoids that act like roots.

Fern plants exhibit two parts in the lifecycle. Those two parts are spore-producing sporophytic generation that is diploid and gamete producing gametophytic generation that is haploid. In the lifecycle of fern plants both these generations occur one after another, i.e. sporophytic → gametophytic → sporophytic. This occurring of two generations one after another is called alternation of generation.

Fern plants grow and occur in the form of sporophyte for maximum duration in its life. The gametophytic generation is temporary and occurs for a very short duration. Because of these reasons, sporophytic generation is considered as the main stage in the life cycle of fern plants.

The life cycle of the fern plant shows distinctly the sporophytic and gametophytic generations. The plant itself is the sporophyte and reproduces asexually by means of spores. The spores start the beginning of the gametophytic generations. Each spore on germination gives rise to prothallus. The prothallus bears the sex organs. After fertilization, the oospore develops. This is the beginning of the sporophytic generation. The oospore on germination produces the sporophyte or the fern plant.

Life cycle of fern plant is divided into two generations. They are:

  1. Sporophytic generation
  2. Gametophytic generation

The special characteristic found in the life cycle of fern plant is 'Alternation of generation'. This is because the haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte alternates with each other during their life cycle.

The diploid sporophytic and the haploid gametophytic generations of fern alternating one after another alternately is called alternation of generation. Here, sporophytic generation is also called asexual reproduction and the gametophytic generation is also called sexual reproduction.

The plant body of fern is called sporophyte because it produces spores on it by asexual reproduction and is diploid stage. It lives for longer time than gametophyte.

The two differences between the sporophyte and gametophyte stage found in the lifecycle of fern are as follows:
Gametophyte Sporophyte
  1. The gametophyte generation is haploid (n) stage.
  2. The prothallus in this stage bears antheridia and archegonia.
  3. This stage is also called sexual reproduction.
  1. Sporophytic generation is diploid (2n) stage.
  2. The true plant in this stage bears spores.
  3. This stage is also called asexual reproduction.

The gametophyte of fern is called prothallus.

Spores are produced from spore mother cells. During formation of spore, meiotic cell division occurs in spore mother cells. In meiotic cell division the number of chromosomes is reduced to half. Thus, spores so produced by meiotic cell division become haploid.

Prothallus of fern plant is also known as gametophytes. In prothallus, male reproductive organ 'antheridia' and female reproductive organ 'archegonia' are produced. Antheridia produce antherozoids while archegonia produce ovum. During reproduction, antherozoid fuses with ovum and zygote is formed. Zygote develops into embryo. After various changes in embryo, a new individual fern plant is developed. In this way, the prothallus help in the life cycle of fern plant.

  1. Archegonium – flask shaped
  2. Antheridium - dome shaped
  3. Prothallus - heart shaped flat
  4. Indusium - kidney shaped

  1. Indusium – Kidney shaped indusium prevents the sorus.
  2. Mallic acid – Mallic acid produced on female gamete stimulates the sperm and attracts towards it and help in the fertilization process.
  3. Rhizoids – The fine hair shaped Rhizoids that support the fern plant and prothallus acts as the root and fulfill the nutrition elements.

Prothallus of fern plant is also known as gametophytes. In prothallus, male reproductive organ 'antheridia' and female reproductive organ 'archegonia' are produced. Antheridia produce antherozoids while archegonia produce ovum. During reproduction, antherozoid fuses with ovum and zygote is formed. Zygote develops into embryo. After various changes in embryo, a new individual fern plant is developed. In this way, the prothallus help in the life cycle of fern plant.

0%
  • The male reproductive organ in fern is _______.

    gametes


    antherozoids


    antheridia


    archegonia


  • The female reproductive organ in fern is ______.

    Antheridia


    sporophytic


    Archegonia


    gametophytic


  • Sporophyte is dominant over gametophyte in a fern plant because ______.

    Gametophyte remains for shorter time and are less development.


    Sporophyte remains for shorter time and are more development.


    None of above


    Sporophyte remains for longer time and are more development.


  • In sexual reproduction of fern plant,  gametophyte is alos known as _______.

    none of the given answer
    Protandrous
    Prothallus
    Perithallus
  • You scored /4


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ASK ANY QUESTION ON Sexual Reproduction in Fern


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both sexual and asexual reproduction is necessary to complete life cycle of fern?


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what is mallic acid?


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Ask any queries on this note.i want to know how prothallus reproduce


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What is fern?


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