Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on The Physical Features of Europe
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Europe is the second smallest continent . It is located in the Northern and mid –land hemisphere of the earth . It has an area about 104,98,000 sq.km of the total land . Europe stretches from 35oN to 71oN latitude and 24oW to 65oN longitude .The average length of the continent from east to west is 6400 km and the average width is 4800 from the south to north. It is surrounded by oceans and seas from three sides . The important attractions of the continent are the longest coastlines among all the continents with oceans , sea , islands , bays and gulf.
Physical featuresIt is described as the peninsula of peninsulas . A peninsula is the piece of land surrounded by the water on three sides . It is the peninsula of the Eurasian supercontinent is bordered by the Arctic ocean to the north , the Mediterranean , Black and Caspian sea to the south , the Atlantic ocean to the west . Gibraltar strait which has the width of 14km between Spain and Mediterranean which separates the continent of Africa. The Ural mountains and the Ural River separate from Asia.
On the basis of their landform Europe is divided into three major physical division :
From the Far – North where it is very cold , with much snow , a long period of darkness in the winter and short summer with temperatures with temperatures near freezing. Due to its temperate zone and the having the longest coastal line, most part of Europe has a temperate climate. Whereas in the Eastern part of Europe, it has the humid continental type of climate.
Europe lies mostly in the North Temperate Zone . The vegetation of Europe is not as big as in Asia. The natural vegetation of Europe can be divided into five types .They are explained below:
Mediterranean regions have hot and dry summer and wet and cool winters. This type of climate is suitable for fruit culture. Orchard farming is a major activity of this region. Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons, grape and limes are extensively cultivated in many parts of this region. Wines are prepared from grapes and exported to markets all over the world. Olives are grown for oil. Nuts such as chest nuts, walnuts and almonds are grown. A large no. of fruit canning industries is established here. So this region is called “the garden of the world”. This is why fruit farming is popular in Mediterranean region of Europe.
Southern Europe between 13 degree N – 45 degree N latitude, has Mediterranean type of climate. Such climate has bright sunny, hot and dry summers and mild rainy winters. On shore, westerly wind blows from the sea to the land in winter and brings rainfall. This is the only climatic type in which there is rainfall only in winter. The summer temperature is about 24 degree C and the winter temperatures are about 13 degree C.
Most of the European countries are developed because