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Metals and Non- Metals

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Introduction

Various types of substances are found around us. Some of them are soft, some are hard, some are pure and some are impure. They may be found in different states. Among them, pure substances are known as elements. Till now, 118 elements have been discovered. These elements are divided into three types on the basis of their properties. They are metals, non- metals and metalloids. The majority of the elements are metals. Metals are hard, good conductor of heat and electricity, malleable and ductile. Some of the common examples of metals are copper, silver, gold, aluminium etc. Non- metals are non- malleable and non- ductile. They are soft in nature and are the bad conductor of heat and electricity. Some of the common examples of non- metals are carbon, sulphur, iodine, nitrogen etc. There are also some elements that show both the properties of metals and non- metals. These elements are known as metalloids. They conduct heat and electricity better than non- metals but not as good as metals. Some of the common examples of metalloids are silicon, germanium and antimony.

Metals

Source:born2invest.com Fig: Metals
Source:born2invest.com
Fig: Metals

Metals are opaque, lustrous elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity. Most of the metals are malleable and ductile. Most of them are hard. When we hit the metals, it produces tinkling sound. We use metals in our daily life activities. Metals are used for making furniture, utensils, jewellery, etc. They are used in transportation, communication, construction, industries, electrical power production, and distribution etc. Some of the common examples of metals are gold, silver, iron, aluminium, copper, brass, etc. Most of the metals exist in the solid state at room temperature except some metals like mercury, gallium etc. These metals exist in the liquid state.

Properties of Metals

  • They are the good conductor of heat and electricity.
  • They have a shiny appearance.
  • They have high melting point.
  • Most of them are malleable and ductile
  • When we hit metals, it produces tinkling sound

Non- Metals

Non- metals are those elements that lack metallic properties. They cannot be beaten into thin sheets and cannot be folded and cannot be drawn into thin wires like metals. They are the bad conductor of heat and electricity but graphite though being a non- metal can conduct heat and electricity. They are non- lustrous. They are also used in our daily life activities like used to make medicines, utensils, containers, etc. Some of the common examples of non- metals are carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine etc.

Source: www.peacefulmind.com Fig: Non- Metals: Sulphur
Source: www.peacefulmind.com
Fig: Non- Metals: Sulphur

Properties of Non- Metals

  • They are non- malleable and non- ductile.
  • They do not conduct heat and electricity.
  • They are soft in nature
  • When we hit non- metals, they do not produce tinkling sound.
  • They are found in the solid, liquid and gaseous state.

Activity 1

You can see various things around you. Study, observe and compare them with the properties metals and non- metal. Now, classify them interms of metals and non- metals and list out their name in the table.

Metals Non- metals

Alloys

An alloy is a defined as a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements. It is made from the combination of two or more metals or metals and non- metals. We use alloys in our daily life activities. More than 90% of metals used are in the form of alloys. About the preparation of alloys, two or more than two metals are mixed in their molten state and then cooled to obtain the solid product as alloys. The common alloys that are used in our daily life activities are given below,

Source: www.sunnysteel.com Fig: Alloy: Steel
Source: www.sunnysteel.com
Fig:Alloy- Steel
  • Stainless steel: Mixture of iron, chromium and carbon
  • Bronze: Mixture of copper and tin
  • Brass: Mixture of copper and zinc
  • Steel: Mixture of iron and carbon

The properties of alloys are different from the properties of its components. The physical and chemical properties of an alloy can be modified by heat treatment and mechanical working. The main purpose of making alloys is given below,

  • To improve the strength and hardness of metals.
  • To lower the melting point.
  • To prevent the metals from rusting and corrosion.
  • To improve the appearance of the metal and get different colours.

Some Useful Alloys

  • Brass: It is an alloy composed of copper and zinc. It is also known as copper alloy as copper is the main component. Usually, the brass is yellow in colour. It is a malleable and good conductor of heat. Rusting does not occur in brass. It is used for making cooking utensils, ornaments, bearings, musical instrument, gears, knobs, locks, coins, statue, etc. It is also used in decoration as it has gold- like appearance.
  • Bronze: An alloy or mixture of copper and tin is known as bronze. It is faint yellow in colour. It has a low melting point and does not get rust. It is mainly used for making household utensils as utensils made of bronze looks attractive. It is also used for making pitchers, statues, gears, bells, valves, weapons, medals, musical instrument, etc.

Some Useful Non- Metals

  • Sulphur: It is a non- metallic chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is the thirteen most abundant element in the earth's crust. It is used for making gunpowder, firecrackers, matches, etc. It is also used in the manufacture of fertilisers and other chemicals. It is used as medicines for curing skin diseases.
    Source: www.drjeda.com Fig: Iodine (as food)
    Source: www.drjeda.com
    Fig: Iodine (as food)
  • Iodine: It is a non- metallic chemical element with a symbol I and atomic number 53. Our body also need some amount of iodine. Our body needs iodine to make thyroid hormones as it controls the body's metabolism and many other important functions. If there is a deficiency of iodine, our thyroid gland swells and enlarges. It is also used in photography, iodex and in medical treatment of thyroid cancer. It is mostly used as disinfectant for external wound, antiseptic for the treatment of minor cuts, etc.

Activity 2

There are a various thing in your home made of alloys such as bearings,locks, bells, plates etc. Make a list of these things and write about the type of alloys they are made of. Also, write their uses.



  • On the basis of their properties, elements are divided into three types. They are metals, non- metals and metalloids.
  • Metals are the solid substances which are malleable, ductile and good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Non- metals are soft, non- malleable and non- ductile substances that can be found in solid, liquid or gaseous state.
  • An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or metals and non- metals.
  • Some of the common examples of metals are copper, brass, silver etc.
  • Some of the common examples of non- metals are carbon, sulphur, phosphorus etc.
  • Brass is used for making cooking utensils as it is malleable and good conductor of heat.
  • Bronze is a faint yellow coloured alloy. It is the mixture of copper and tin.
.

Very Short Questions

The differences between metals and non- metals are given below in table,

Metals Non- metals
Metals are good conductor of heat and electricity. Non- metals are bad conductor of heat and electricity.
Metals are malleable and ductile. Non- metals are neither malleable nor ductile.
Metals (except sodium and potassium) are generally hard.
Example: Copper and Iron

Non- metals (except diamond) are generally soft.
Example: Sulphur and Iodine

Any four characteristics of metals are given below,

  • They are good conductor of heat and electricity.
  • They are malleable and ductile.
  • They are hard (except sodium and potassium).
  • They have high density.

Any four characteristics of non- metals are given below,

  • They are bad conductor of heat and electricity.
  • They are non- malleable and non- ductile.
  • They have low density.
  • Non- metals (except diamond) are generally soft.

The homogenous mixture of two or more metals or a metal and a non- metal is called an alloy. Any three objectives of making alloys are given below,

  • To lower the melting point.
  • Increase the hardness.
  • To produce different colour.

Any two examples each of metals, non- metals, metalloids and alloys are given below,

  • Metals: Iron and Silver
  • Non- metals: Sulphur and Iodine
  • Metalloids: Germanium and Arsenic
  • Alloys: Steel and Brass

Any two uses each of brass and bronze are given below.

  • Brass: It is used for making cooking utensils, ornaments. bearings etc and it is also used in decoration as it has gold- like appearance.
  • Bronze: It is used for making household utensils. It is also used for making pitchers, statues,gears, bells, valves, weapons, etc.

Any two uses each of sulphur and iodine are given below,

  • Sulphur: It is used for making gunpowder, firecrackers, matches, etc. It is also used in the manufacture of fertilizers and other chemicals.
  • Iodine:  It is also used in photography, iodex and in medical treatment of thyroid cancer. It is also used as disinfectant for external wound, antiseptic for the treatment of minor cuts, etc.

0%
  • Which one of the following is a metal?

    Iodine
    Bronze
    Copper
    Sulphur
  • Which one of the following is non- metal?

    Sulphur
    Silver
    Iron
    Copper
  • Which of the following is an alloy?

    Silver
    Chlorine
    Iodine
    Bronze
  • Which substance is used for making gun powder?

    Sulphur
    Iodine
    Brass
    Bronze
  • Which substance is used for making matches?

    Iodine
    Sulphur
    Brass
    Bronze
  • Deficiency of iodine causes

    Nightblindness
    Cancer
    Blood pressure
    Goitre
  • Which substance is used in photography?

    Iodine
    Silver
    Sulphur
    Gold
  • Which substance is used for making household utensils?

    Diamond
    Bronze
    Sulphur
    Gold
  • Which substance is used for making coins?

    Iodine
    Sulphur
    Diamond
    Brass
  • The homogeneous mixture of two or more metals or metals and non- metals is known as

    Sulphur
    Metals
    Iodine
    An alloy
  • Which one of the following is not the metalloids?

    Silicon
    Gold
    Germanium
    Arsenic
  • Into how many types are elements divided?

    6
    4
    2
    3
  • Steel is a mixture of

    Copper and zinc
    Iron and carbon
    Iron and copper
    Iron and zinc
  • Brass is a mixture of

    Zinc and carbon
    Copper and zinc
    Iron and copper
    Iron and zinc
  • Bronze is a mixture of

    Iron and tin
    Zinc and copper
    Copper and tin
    Chromium and tin
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