Notes on Stocks and Types of stocks | Grade 12 > Hotel Management > Food Production Department | KULLABS.COM

Stocks and Types of stocks

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Stocks

The stock is unthickened, unseasoned, flavorful and nutritious foundation liquid made from the fresh and mature bones with an addition of various aromatic vegetables and herbs. The bones can be of beef, mutton, chicken, pork, veal, fish,etc. it is used in the preparation and as the foundation of various dishes such as soups, sauces, gravies, curries, stews, braising, rice and cold dishes. Fond de cuisine refers to kitchen stock in French.

(Source: micalily.blogspot.com)
(Source: micalily.blogspot.com)

The preparation of stock calls for understanding and care discerning taste. Long and slow simmering of food (except fish stock) is required to draw out the flavor and nutrient into the liquid. After cooking it should be properly stored in a hygienic condition and correct temperature. Stocks are essential ingredients and base of dishes. Therefore, following care should be taken in its preparation;

  • All fat blood lines and marrow should be removed from the bone before preparing.
  • Scums should be removed from time to time during simmering because it spoils the taste and flavor.
  • Stocks should only be simmered and not boil.
  • Mirepoix (roughly cut vegetables) and bouquet garni ( a bunch of herbs) must be fresh, not stale.
  • If stocks are to be store then strain, reboil, cool quickly and place in a cool place or refrigerator.
  • Salt should never be added to stock

Types of stock

There is three type of stock and they are:

1. White stock (fond blanc)

(Source: www.dw.com)
(Source: www.dw.com)

White chicken and meat stocks are used for the preparation of soups, sauces, stews, gravies and court bouillion. The bones and mirepoix are put in cold water and slowly brought to a boil. Its French name is fond blanc.

Types of white stock

  • White beef stock
  • White mutton stock
  • White veal stock
  • White chicken stock

Ingredients for White stock

  • Bones
  • Cold water
  • Mirepoix (diced)
  • Onion
  • Carrot or parsnip
  • Celery
  • Leek
  • Butter
  • Thyme
  • Bouquet garni
  • Bayleaf

General methods of preparing all white stocks

  1. Chop the bones and place it in a thick bottomed stock pot.
  2. Add cold water and bring to boil.
  3. If the scum is dirty, then blanch and wash off the bone, re-cover with cold water and re-boil.
  4. Skim occasionally and simmer gently for around half an hour.
  5. Now add mirepoix and bouquet garni (flavorings agents).
  6. Simmer for two-four hours, skim and strain.

2. Brown stock

(Source: www.recipeshubs.com)
(Source: www.recipeshubs.com)

Brown stocks are made with beef veal and poultry meat and bones.It is used for soups, braising, gravies, curries, stews, and sauces. Its French name is fond burn.

Types of brown stock

  • Brown beef stock
  • Brown mutton stock
  • Brown veal stock
  • Brown game stock

Ingredients for Brown Stock

  • Bones
  • Cold water or remouillage
  • Mirepoix (diced)
  • Onion
  • Carrot or parsnip
  • Celery
  • Leek
  • Tomato product
  • Thyme
  • Bayleaf

General methods for preparing for all brown stocks

  1. Chop the bones, and brown well on all sides , either by frying and roasting.
  2. Place the brown bones in a thick bottomed stock pot.
  3. Add cold water, bring to boil and skim occasionally to remove the scum.
  4. Fry the mirepoix till brown and add to the bones.
  5. Add bouquet garni to the bones.
  6. Simmer gently for stipulated time as per the bone used, skim occasionally, strain and store.

(For brown stocks, a few tomatoes and mushroom trimming may also be added to improve the flavor)

The raw bone and mirepoix are sautéed or roasted with fat or without fat until brown and then simmered in the gentle heat for brown stock. But for white stock, raw bones, and other ingredients are kept in pot and simmer in gentle heat.

3. Fish Stock

fish stock source (thelittlegnomeshome.blogspot.com)

(source: thelittlegnomeshome.blogspot.com)

Ingredients needed while preparing fish stock are

  • Fish bones with heads
  • Cold water
  • Mirepoix (diced)
  • Onion
  • Celery
  • Leek
  • Butter
  • White wine (Chablis)
  • Bayleaf
  • Parsley
  • Thyme

Methods of preparation of fish stock

  1. Melt a migraine or butter in a thick bottomed pan
  2. Add sliced onion, well-washed fish bones and other ingredients as a return in recipes.
  3. Cover with lid and sweat (cook gently without coloring ) for five minutes.
  4. Add water and bring to boil
  5. Skim and simmer for 20 to 25 minutes.
  6. Then strain and store in a cold place.

4. Vegetable Stock

vegetable stock source (gatewaygourmet.com)

(source: gatewaygourmet.com)

Ingredients needed for the preparation of vegetable stock are

  • Coarsely chopped vegetables as requires
  • Mushrooms and mushroom stem 1 KG
  • Tomatoes ½ KG
  • Broccoli and broccoli stem 1 KG
  • Herbs Forflavor
  • Water 1 liter
  • Salt to taste
  • pepper to taste

Methods of preparing vegetable stocks

  1. Put the vegetables in a large saucepan.
  2. Add enough water to cover them with enough room to stir.The less water the stronger the stock.
  3. Bring the ingredients to a boil.Reduce heat and leave to simmer for an hour to an hour and a half, stirring occasionally.
  4. If scum forms (which will depend on your vegetables) remove it periodically from the top as the stock cooks by running a spoon across it.
  5. Strain the stock over another pot or large bowl.

If you used carrots, you can puree the carrots with one cup of the stock.When smooth, pour the pureed carrot mixture back into the stock.(optional)

Discard the vegetables or use as you see fit.Rather than disposing of the vegetable remains used in preparing the stock, you can use them in a variety of other dishes (although you will need to have peeled your onions before using them). Puree them and have them in a soup or add to a pasta sauce. You could also not puree them, and add them to a stir-fry or use them in an omelet

Use the stock now or leave it to cool before adding to a storage container.This stock can be used immediately, or stored in the refrigerator or the freezer until you need to use it. If stored, be sure to label and date it. Use within 2 months of making it if freezing, within a few days if refrigerating. Stock can be stored in Ziplock/sealable bags and frozen.

Preparation time for stocks

Stocks Time
Fish 20 - 30 minutes
Vegetables 1 - 2 Hours
Chicken 4 - 6 Hours
Beef 6 - 8 Hours

References:

Joshi, Basant Prasad et.al., Fundamentals of Hotel Management-XII, Sukunda Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu

Bhandari, Saroj Sing et.al., Principle of Hotel Management-XII, Asmita Publication, Kathmandu

Oli, Gopal Singh et.al., Hotel Management Principle and practices-XII, Buddha Prakashan, Kathmandu



  1. All fat blood lines and marrow should be removed from the bone before preparing.
  2. Scrums should be removed from time to time during simmering because it spoils the taste and flavor.
  3. Stocks should only be simmered and not boil.
  4. Mirepoix (roughly cut vegetables) and bouquet garni ( a bunch of herbs) must be fresh, not stale.
  5. If stocks are to be store then strain, reboil, cool quickly and place in a cool place or refrigerator.
  6. Salt should never be added to stock.
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