Microorganism plays a vital role in waste water treatment during secondary treatment which is also called the biological treatment, the oxygen demanding wastes (organic wastes) of water pollution are removed with the help of microorganism.
The main purpose of secondary treatment is to provide additional biological oxygen demand (BOD) and suspended solid particles. In trickling filter method, organic wastes are decomposed by aerobic decomposition. It mainly uses aerobic bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, worms, insect larvae and snails. Similarly, in activated sludge process recycle biological organism from the secondary settling tank known as activated sludge decompose the organic wastes in the aeration tank which receive effluent from the primary clarifier. On the other hand oxidation pond method, the facultative microorganism is decomposed the organic wastes in aerobic i.e in surface and anaerobic i.e in bottom conditions.
The undesirable change in the composition and quality of the air is known as air pollution. The air pollution due to microbial activity in the atmosphere is known as microbial air pollution. It is a kind of biological air pollution. Bacteria, virus particles, fungal particles, fungal spores, algae spores and cyst of protozoan are known as the naturally produced microbial pollutants. They are collectively known as air spores. A large number of algal spores of unicellular or multicellular forms are responsible for algal air pollutants. Examples: Gymnodium chlorella, fungal spores of Penicillin, Alternaria, Aspergillus, smut, rust and molds are the responsible microbial air pollutants. The fungal air pollutants cause a large number of mycosis and number of allergies in human being and animals. Allergies are caused due to inhalation of their spores. Bacterial and viral air pollutants cause many serious diseases and also caused allergies and often that allergies cause the skin diseases. There are millions of microbes in the air that we breathe. Their distribution depends on geographical and ecological condition. Most of the fungal spores are between 3 to 300 micrometer in diameter. The majority of bacteria cells re about 1 micrometer in diameter and virus particles are 0.1 micrometers. Microbes of human origin are ejected through talking, sneezing and coughing. Air serves as vehicles for transport of microbes from one place to another place. The fungal spore came from the soil, from the organic waste of man and animals, from the lungs through a cough and sneezes and from the mouth.
|Name of fungi||Effects|
|Aspergillus||Pulmonar infection and aspergillosis of ear|
|Microspore and Eryptococcus||Mycosis|
|Name of algae||Effects|
|Simmon||parasite on the intestine of human being|
Microbes make different associations and interaction among them and with higher animals, plants. Different microbes interact in different ways in an environment. The microbial interactions are responsible for regulation of population and viable existence in nature. There are two types of interactions; there is positive interaction in which both or either species is benefited and negative interaction in which both or either species are harmed.
3: Protocooperation (syntrophism)
Naturalism describes the relationship between two species that interact but do not affect each other. It describes interactions where the health of one species has absolutely no effect whatsoever on that of the other. Examples of true neutralism are virtually impossible to prove and most ecologists (as well as textbooks) would agree that this concept does not exist. When dealing with the complex network of interactions presented by ecosystem, one cannot assert positively that there is absolutely no competition between or benefit to either species. However, the term is often used to describe situations where interactions are negligible or insignificant.
Commensalism benefits one organism and the other organism is neither benefited nor harmed. It occurs when one organism takes benefits by interacting with another organism by which the host organism is not affected. A good example is a remora living with a shark. Remoras eat leftover food from the shark. The shark is not affected in the process, as remoras eat the only leftover food of the shark, which does not deplete the shark's resources.
This is the mutual relation with the microorganism. Although plants are the main source of food, they do not produce cellulose digestive enzymes by themselves. Microbial compression is which are present in the rumen at the stomach of animal produce cellulose digestive enzymes. That microorganism digests the plant's materials i.e cellulose and also provide constant temperature. Ruminant animals are also helpful for microbes. In this case, bactericides and Ruminococcous species are present in the lumen of the stomach.
Root nodules of leguminous plant consist of nitrogen-fixing bacteria i.e Nitrosomonas species and Nitrobacterium. These bacteria fix the atmospheric nitrogen into nitrite and nitrate. Nitrite is again converted into nitrate only nitrate is utilized by the leguminous plant as fertilizer. It is one of the examples of microbes and plants interaction. This is also known as the symbiotic relation.
Penicillium species produce the penicillin which inhibits or suppresses the growth and development of other fungi and bacteria. In the same community or source both the organism cannot develop at the same time. The toxic activities of penicillin mask over the other microbe activity. This is known as antibiosis.
Miller, Jr. G.T. Living in the Environment. Wadsworth Publication, 2003.
S.C., Santee. Environmental Science. India, New Center: New Center Book Agency (P) Ltd, 2004.
T., Richard. Environmental Science Towards a Sustainable Future. India: PHI (P) Ltd., 2008.