Present work performance is needed assessed to meet the objectives. Skill deficiency is to be corrected through training in order to achieve organizational objectives. Moreover, there is need for measuring the degree of skilled developed through training.Training programs should be periodically evaluated to determine its effectiveness. Evaluation of training is must essential to be conducted by setting standardized criteria.
Evaluation provides feedback about the effectiveness of training activities. It helps to control and improves the quality of training program. It verifies the program's success in terms of learner outcomes and cost effectiveness
The process of evaluation of training effectiveness is a continuous process that is developed to evaluate training effectiveness. Evaluation should be tailor made to feet a particular training activity. Its process are as follows:
Setting standard: Standard is expected the level of outcomes. Training objective needs to meet the level of outcomes. Setting standard helps to compare actual outcomes. Performance level before giving training and after giving training is an example of it.
Measuring actual outcomes: After setting the standard, actual performance is monitor and measured. Training effectiveness is found in actual outcomes measurement.
Finding deviation and their causes: Deviation is a gap between standard performance and actual performance. In this step, such differences are found and analysed the causes of difference between the performances. Training effectiveness is actually observed in this step. Trainees responses are important.
Taking corrective action: Expected outcomes is needed in certain extent. If training cannot serve the performance meeting standard, the reason for lacking is to identify and corrected by the scientific way and again future training programs are organized.
The evaluation must be systematic and objective. Training effectiveness can be viewed in terms of outcomes. The certain criteria for evaluating training effectiveness can be explained as follows:
Reaction: Process and methods perceived by trainees, during training are expressed in terms of opinion, impression and attitudes. An effectiveness of training can be measured on the basis of each reaction.
Learning: Degree of learning in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes acquired by trainees can be measured to evaluate training effectiveness. Learning should bring positive change.
Behavior: Behavior shown by employees in the job after getting training is observed to evaluate training effectiveness. Transfer of new learning through training shown by employees to the job shows the training effectiveness.
Result: Result is concerned with the improvements in job performance. Higher productivity, better quality, lower turnover/accident/absenteeism are positive result. They show the positive effect of training.
Observation: Trainees are observed closely during the delivery of training program by trained expert. Changes in knowledge and attitudes of trainees by observing, recording of errors and mistake are made systematically, experts who involve in observation can rate on a scale to find out the degree of learning. It is simple method to administer.
Test-retest method: Level of knowledge is tested before the employees enter the training. After the completion of training, their level of knowledge is retested and change in scores are observed. High score indicates positive effect of training. Generally, objective test is used. It is simple, popular, sound and low-cost method. Sometime increase in score may be due to other reasons but behavioral changes cannot be measured by such test.
Pre-post performance method: The actual job performance of each participant is evaluated and rated prior to training. Participants are rated before and after training. After such training there will be change in the trainee. Job performance of each participant is re-evaluated after the completion of training. The change in job performance is attributed to training. It is due to the positive change in behavior.
Experimental control group method: Comparable two groups are established and evaluation is made in terms of skills, intelligence and learning abilities. One group is control group whose members work on the job without undergoing training. Another group is an experimental group whose members undergo training. The performance of each group is evaluated. If the performance of experimental group improves, training is regarded effective. It is used to evaluate differences in knowledge, skills and intelligence. This method is an objective and most preferred approach.
Trainee survey: Though the direct survey of trainees also can be evaluated training. Under this method, various kinds of question can be asked about personal, job-related training facilities, timing material for training, behavioral changes as a result of training, trainees effectiveness, suggestions for improvement etc.The feedback received from trainees is useful for removing weakness of the current programs . However, the survey is time-consuming and costly.
Cost-effectiveness analysis: Under this method of measuring training effectiveness, benefits given by training and cost incurred are compared. If total benefits exceed the total training cost then the training is effective. It is realized in future. It's measured in monetary value. Training and evaluation should go hand in hand. Organization should use more than one approach for evaluating the effectiveness of training.
Training and development are two terms that come in hand in hand. It cannot be separated. When a person is trained there will automatic development in him/her. Although training and development are most important, much Nepalese organization are given less priority to them. The major characteristics of practice of training and development in Nepalese organizations are explained as follows:
Need assessment of training and development:In the vast majority of the Nepalese association, the need for training and development is not surveyed appropriately aside from in some huge private and multinational organizations. Accounting, store management, productivity, salesmanship and marketing management are the most common areas of training offered to employees in Nepal.
Training and development method: Most of the Nepalese organizations use both on the job training and off the job training and development methods. Basically, on the job apprenticeship and internship method are used for skills and professional jobs. Similarly, off the job training methods are lecture or conference oriented. Experiential exercises are little used for training.
Management development: Nepalese organizations are mostly developed by participating in project teamwork and through the internal movement from one to another development. However, they do not give adequate attention to developing their managers to assume greater responsibilities in the future. Some private consulting firms conduct short-term programs for managers but they face great difficulty in attracting participants.
Training and development institutions: In Nepal, there are not very many preparing and improvement establishments including in preparing programs. These institutions provide off the job training to the employees. Some of them are staff college, management association of Nepal, Center for economic development etc.
Training related problems: In Nepalese organization, effective training policy is missing and training function is not managed properly. Comprehensive training needs assessment also lacking. Clear cut responsibility is also lacking. There are unclear objectives of training. Target group is not clear for training.
Development related problems: Nepalese organizations do not give much more focus to developing their managers to assume greater responsibilities. The facilities and capabilities of management development institutions are limited. There are some private consulting firms and management association of Nepal conduct short-term programs for managers.
Implementation related problems: In Nepalese organization,the implementation aspects of human resource development are ineffective and unreasonable. There is still a lack of necessary policies and procedures.
Effectiveness of training and development: Although some of the training institutions are providing training and development facilities to employees of many organization, their effectiveness is still lacking or often questionable. The evaluation of training and development is based on learning and reaction criteria.
Lepak, D., & Gowan, M. (2010). Human resource management: Training and Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
Kharal, S.k. (2006). Foundation of Human Resource Management. Asian.
Acharya, B. s. (2014). Foundation of Human Resource Management. Kathmandu: Asmita.
Adhikari, D. (2010). Human resource Management. kathmandu: Buddha.
Process of evaluating training effectiveness
Methods for evaluating training effectiveness