Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on Historical Studies
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Historiography is a method of recording history as a research project. By studying history we learn about the past and prospect for the future. We are ignorant about many aspects of the past because of lack of records due to the loss of such records. History of a certain place in constructed with the utilization of various non-written sources like remains, buildings, artefacts, coins, statues, clothing and songs and written ones like records, diaries, newspapers and treaties. On the basis of their originality these are sources categorized into two as:
Primary sources take us closer to the events. They include the first-hand operation of the events happening in one's contemporary time. Using these sources as an eyewitness, historians record in special circumstances what they see, feel and experience. For the volume of their writing historians cannot rely more on these sources because they have very few opportunities, but on the secondary ones which are more commonly found.
Secondary sources include the remains, artefacts, records, diaries, journals, etc. These sources are less reliable because they may be biased, mistaken or fragmented; still very important to record the events of the distant past. History in prepared in this method after a comparative study of the indications given by these sources. So historians have to be critical of the evidence provided by these secondary sources.
And on the basis of their nature, these sources can be classified as follows:
|Sources Of History|
|Written Sources||Non-written Sources||Artefacts and other archeological objects|
| || || |
Ancient Nepalese history in drawn from the legendary and religious sources. Nepal is believed to be sacred land of Hindus and Buddhists. It remained the birthplace of Gautam buddha and an area where various monks such as Manjushree spent their times. Many valuable sources of Nepalese history have been lost the history. Recorded history of Nepal begins later with Mandev's initiative for recording events in various inscriptions. 'An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal' prepared in 1793 by an Englishman William J. Kirkpatrick is considered in the first book of Nepalese history while Ambika Prasad Upadhaya wrote the first history book in Nepali in 1929. Baburam Acharya, known as 'itihas shiromani' ( a gem in history), contributed most to this field.
The following sources have been utilized in the preparation of Nepal's history.
Historical information also passes from one generation to another through oral sources. Songs, legends, stories, veergathas tell us about the past events and characters. Similarly conversational statements from various dignitaries have remained important for recording our history.
History as a subject is very important because history is related to our past and is about our ancestors and their contribution for the country. Learning history in class not only makes the student acknowledge about their country but also make them know the past and prospect for the future.
The difference between primary sources and secondary sources of the historiography are:
|Primary sources||Secondary sources|
|Primary sources include the firsthand observation of events happening in one' contemporary time.||Secondary sources include the remains, artifacts, records, diaries, journals, etc.|
|These sources are reliable as they are eyewitnesses.||These sources are less reliable as they may be biased, mistaken or fragmented.|
|Primary sources have very less information.||Secondary sources have more information as they are made by comparative study of the indications given by sources.|
History is description of human activities, civilization and many more events happened in the past along with the date and year. According to the situation, it can be divided into types. They are
If I was given the responsibilities to explore or write a history, I will use all the three sources of history. They are written, verbal and archeological.
I will go to library and museum to explore or write about written sources of history. I will conduct an interview with some old people, historians to search about verbal sources of history. Similarly, for searching archeological sources, I will visit the temple, historical buildings, and other museums.
Bhagwan Lal Indraji, Baburam Acharya, Hem Raj Pandey, Nayanraj Pant, Yogi Narahari Nath, D.R.regmi, Surya V. Gwawali, Dhana B. Bajracharya, Lain S. Bangdel and Satya Mohan Joshi have contributed much to draw up the history of Nepal by visiting, researching, carrying different sources and writing.