Note on Human Resource Development and Management Development

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Human resource development

Human resource is an internal part of an organization. It is a very important function of human resource management. It consists of training, development and career planning and performance evaluation. Organizational success is possible only by the appointment of the right person. They can give high production to the organization. For this people need competencies for the good performance of organizational activities. Competencies can be in terms of knowledge, skill, attitudes and experiences. People become human resources when they acquired competencies. So, human resource development is concerned with developing competencies of people in the organization. People with competencies ensure that organization has adequate human resources for the successful achievement of organizational goal.

According to Decenzo and Robbins," Human resource development is concerned with preparing employees to work effectively and efficiently in the organization".

According to Tv Rao," Human resource development aims at developing a variety of competencies of employees and developing a culture in the organization to utilize these competencies and contribute to organizational goal".

Importance of human resource development

Human resource needs to be developed continuously to achieve organizational goal effectively and efficiently. It makes employees efficient and effective employees achieve a better result. It concerns with developing competencies of people in the organization. the importance of it are described below:

Improve competencies: Human resource from top to bottom level need competencies to get organizational success. Training and development program are to be organized to make the people capable. Human resource development program enhances the competencies of people. It improves skills, knowledge and attitudes of employees. It makes manager capable of facing challenges and handling responsibilities in the future.

Enhances effectiveness: Effectiveness in performance is a need of every organization. Organizational effectiveness can be enhanced through human resource development. It help to achieve its superior goals. It gives high productivity and quality, control cost and increases efficiency, proper utilization of other resources, reduce wastage and scrap, improve the safety of employees and improve the quality of work life. It also helps in proper utilization of material in the organization.

Foster teamwork: Human resources in the organization are to be committed. Better communication and cooperation among employees help to established better relationship. The climate of trust is to be created for the achievement of organizational goal. It promotes expression of free feelings.

Facilitates career development: Career development is a personal improvement. It is a continuous effort to match the long-term individual and organizational needs. It can be done only by the training and development program. It is directly concerned with satisfying individual growth needs. They expect their future better and want to make their present background smooth. They spend their time now with all kinds of potential for career development. Human resource development facilitates career development.

Increase job satisfaction: Feeling of commitment and organizational citizenship can be developed by the organization. Committed employees might have the highest morale. It provides safety at work and improves quality of work life. It reduces absenteeism and labor turnover and increases job satisfaction through positive attitudes towards the job.

Improve decision making: Promptly decision is to be taken in the organization at a different level. Capabilities for decision making is to be developed in person. Human resource development helps to make an effective decision. It improves decision-making capabilities and creative thinking of management.

Manage change and conflicts: Change may occur anytime.It is to be manage in time. Human resource development helps to overcome resistance to change and settle disputes and conflicts through labor relation.

Succession planning: Internal management of human resource need for future is succession planning. Present program for human resource development prepares human resource internally. They can be upgraded in future if capable.

Environmental adaptation: Manager of an organization has to respond to changing environment forces. It facilitates environmental adaptation. Human resource development recognizes people as strategic human assets.

Management development

Management development is a systematic process of improving managerial performance. It prepares manager to handle present and future responsibilities. It is also part of training but it is for upper level only. Management development is concerned with the enhancement of executive conceptual ability for effective management. In other words, Human resource development is a continuous process to ensure the development of employee in a systematic and planned way.

Managerial level comprises personnel who manage the overall organization to direct the organizational mission and objectives. Leadership role is played by managers. They supervise direct and control the activities and subordinates during the operational period. Decision making, establishing the relationship among employee and department, communication skill needs to be developed by managers. So, it is called as executive development.

According to the Decenzo and Robbins," Management development is future-oriented training, focusing on the personal growth of the employees."

In conclusion, managerial level personnel needs competencies to handle organization effectively. So, their development program focusing future is known as simply management development. Its aims to ensure that the organization has the effective managers. It requires meeting its present as well as future needs. Proper development of human resource is required for the achievement of organizational goal.

Feature of management development

  • It takes care of future responsibility and its implementation.
  • It is long term continuous educational process.
  • It focuses on managerial personnel.
  • It mainly focuses on developing technical and decision-making skill.
  • It is proactive to future needs.
  • It focuses on developing skill in implementing strategies.
  • It focuses on leadership role playing.

Objectives of management development

Management of every organization should be capable of solving the problems that challenge organization's strategies. That's way managerial level personnel are prepared to accomplish the following objectives:

Increase managerial capabilities: Capability is that quality which helps to do the job. Capabilities are required to handle responsibilities and face challenges.

Foster teamwork: Management needs to create an environment of trust that needs good communication among all the employees. Team work is to be faster for achieving organizational objectives through efficiency increment.

Facilitates environmental adaptation: Management development program prepares manager in such a way that they can face environmental challenges which help to facilitate environmental adaptation.

Improves decision making: Decision making is a process of opening the way of doing or not doing the job. It should be quick or right as much as possible. Creative thinking capabilities are to be developed on managerial personnel to bring improvement in decisions role.

Facilitates managerial succession: Managerial succession is the preparation of managerial personnel for future in the upper level job. Management development helps them to make capable of taking higher level responsibilities. Its main objective is to facilitate in making human resource plan.

Improve managerial job satisfaction: Behavioral aspect of manager towards the job is necessary to improve. Management development improves job satisfaction of manager by changing their attitudes and behavior towards the job.

Management development methods/techniques

On the job management method

Management development program organized at the workplace to increase knowledge and skills require for managers to complete a job in time on the job method of management development. On the job method comprises following techniques.

Coaching: On the direct guidance of upper-level managers immediate lower level managers are coached is coaching method. Under coaching method, immediate manager at work location are suggested, guided, advised and criticized. They practice manager's job and try to solve managerial problems. It provides opportunities for interaction between the coach and the learner. It is one of the oldest and commonly used the method. Feedback is given very soon but all the managers may not be capable for coaching.

Understudy assignment: A method for giving training to managers in order to make them capable in the managerial job under the direction of the immediate boss is called understudy assignment. Main objectives of giving this training are to make ready for acting managers job in the absence of his/her. Managers may be terminated from the job at which time assistant can take the place of the immediate boss for playing managers role.It is a method of preparation for the higher post for lower level managers. Under this method, they can be capable of taking responsibilities and duties of managers but chances of error increase.

Job rotation: Managerial level personnel are transfer from one job to another in a systematic way is job rotation. Under this method, the manager can gain various knowledge about different jobs. All the role and responsibilities and duties are assigned to the manager when a new job is assigned. It is the opportunities for a person to do all kinds of job. It involves shifting managers from position to position. It may be planned rotation or situational rotation. I t provides opportunities for becoming familiar with varieties of the job. Under this method, changes in low productivity may increase. The cost of rotation may be high.

Committee assignment: A temporary committee is formed to assign managerial responsibilities. Manager involves in a committee for the discussion and practice about decision making. They learn about each other. They forward the suggestion to the upper level and get feedback on it. They practice here to identify problems, alternative solution and choosing the best solution. They give opportunities to managers to gain experience and develop the ability.

Internship method: It combines classroom oriented theoretical knowledge with practical experience. Managers are interned in the organization for a specified period to work as employees to gain experience. Good interns can be selected as manager and high motivation is its advantage. However, managers may lose their seriousness during the internship.

Off the job management method

Management development under off the job method is a specific program that is organized out of the job place. It is in-house classroom instruction. The specialized program under this method is organized in universities and training institutions. This method use for off the job management development are:

Behavior modeling method: Behavior is person's characteristics. It shapes person's operational activities. The favorable behavior of a person to the organization can give a better reason. Such behavior is simulated as a model to get them taught. It follows model study, role study, reinforcement and skill transfer. Participants immediate such roles after demonstration but it is assumed to be time-consuming.

Simulation method: Simulation is an abstraction of real world situations in laboratory or classroom. Participants are placed in the artificial environment and they learn by practice decision making. This method indicates the duplication of real organizational situations in a learning environment. The simulation method is case study, critical incidence, role play management game.

Lecture/Seminar/Education: It is also communication of experts and manager. Participants get opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills. The lecture can be improved to make the program effective. Audio, visual aids like film, video, television, overhead projector, power point are generally used to make the lecture interesting. It can cover a large number of participants at a time. Large number and kinds of information can be covered in a short time but lecture lacks active involvement of learners and level of learning is difficult to determine.

Transactional analysis: This a method of interaction between individual and the group as a transaction. The transaction requires positive behavior to learn more about management. Individual personality consists of following ego states: The parent ego, adult ego and child ego. The parent and child ego state feel and react directly. The adult state thinks before acting. The idle interaction is an adult ego state. Transactional analysis method encourages managers to engage in adult state behavior. It is used in organizational development efforts and contents of communication. Sensitiveness is required to be shown by a manager while making managers.

Sensitivity training method: It is a management development of improving and controlling behavior of manager. The manager should be sensitive while carrying out managerial activities. This method of learning is conducted in the open and free environment among the managers through the open interaction. All participants express their views, ideas, beliefs, attitudes and share impression. They become sensitive to the behavior of self and others. It gives managers with an increased awareness of own behavior and how others perceive them.


Lepak, D., & Gowan, M. (2010). Human resource management: Training and Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall

Kharal, S.k. (2006). Foundation of Human Resource Management. Asian.

Acharya, B. s. (2014). Foundation of Human Resource Management. Kathmandu: Asmita.

Adhikari, D. (2010). Human resource Management. kathmandu: Buddha.

  • Human resource development is concerned with developing competencies of people in the organization.
  •  Human resource needs to be developed continuously to achieve organizational goal effectively and efficiently.

Importance of Human resource development.

  • Improves competencies
  • Enhances effectiveness
  • Foster teamwork
  • Facilitates career development
  • Increase job satisfaction
  • Improve decision-making
  • Manage change and conflicts
  • Succession planning
  • Environmental adaption

Objectives of management development

  • Increase managerial capabilities
  • Foster teamwork
  • Facilitates environmental adaptation
  • Improves decision-making
  • Facilitates managerial succession
  • Improves managerial job satisfaction

Management development techniques

on the job method

  • Coaching
  • Understudy assignment
  • Job rotation
  • Committee assignment
  • Internship method

off the job method

  • Lecture method
  • Simulation method
  • Behaviour modeling method
  • Transactional method
  • Sensitivity training method






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