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सयौं थुँगा फूलका हामी, एउटै माला नेपाली
सार्वभौम भई फैलिएका, मेची-माहाकाली।
प्रकृतिका कोटी-कोटी सम्पदाको आंचल
वीरहरूका रगतले, स्वतन्त्र र अटल।
ज्ञानभूमि, शान्तिभूमि तराई, पहाड, हिमाल
अखण्ड यो प्यारो हाम्रो मातृभूमि नेपाल।
बहुल जाति, भाषा, धर्म, संस्कृति छन् विशाल
अग्रगामी राष्ट्र हाम्रो, जय जय नेपाल।
Unity means the state of being one and diversity means variation.Nepal is a small world in itself. It has diversity both in its physical and cultural aspects. Its physical diversity of climate and land form have encouraged diversity of races, caste, religion, language, food, costume, etc. its location between two large countries viz. china and India with distinctively different lifestyles has influenced the lifestyle respectively of southern and northern belt of the country and lifestyles of Nepalese people themselves are different in terms of regions, religions, castes, etc.
Hinduism, the eternal religion, followed by majority gave a conducive environment to Buddhism from the ancient time. Islam and Christianity along with some other religions could flourish amidst these two major religions later. Religious tolerance was highly maintained. Religious practices of people in Nepal right up to today overlap very often. Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, Swayambhu, Boudhanath, etc. are looked upon by Hindus as well with great reverence. Pashupati, Muktinath, etc are worshiped by Buddhists, too. They also celebrate several common religious and cultural festivals. It's a matter of pleasure that there have never been any serious religious riots in Nepalese societies.
Despite its small size, Nepal possesses very large ethnic variations. As remarked by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, it is a garden of four castes and thirty-six sub casts. According to the national census was taken in 2001 AD, there are more than 100 different caste in the country. Most of these castes have preserved their mother tongue languages, constitutionally recognized as languages of the nation (Rashtra Bhasha) besides the common Nepali language, the official language of the nation. All castes and sub-castes have preserved their special way of life in terms of their language, literature, costumes, music, dances, festivals, food, architecture, etc. all literature sing for unity and co-operation in the nation.
According to article 3 of Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063 BS, the Nepalese people with multiethnic, multilingual, multireligious, multicultural characteristics and having common aspirations and united by a bond of allegiance to national independence and integrity, national interest and prosperity collectively constitute the nation.
Nepali people are united linguistically and culturally. Irrespective of their differences, they are united in a common goal and national interest of peace and prosperity, independence, sovereignty and integrity. The forebears could defend the English attacks during Anglo-Nepal War through their collective efforts. Unity was also the key to the success of the revolutions and movements fought for democracy and public rights.
According to article 34, 'it will be the social objective of the state to create a harmonious social life based on justice and morality, by removing all sorts of socio-economic inequalities and establishing coordination between different races, castes, religions, languages, communities and creeds'.
Then according to article 35, 'the state will adopt a policy of strengthening national unity by maintaining cultural diversity through equal development of all's languages, literature, scripts, Arts and culture, by developing harmonious social relations based upon equality and coexistence of various religions, cultures, castes, creeds, communities, origins and languages'.
Diversity is our identity and unity are our specialties. Our cultures should be protected from the undue influence of foreign ones. Religious and cultural heritages should be preserved and promoted. Religious tolerance needs to be developed and practiced in more practicable ways. Prejudices like lingual, racial, regional, communal should be avoided. Mutual respect should be developed between all components of Nepalese population and people should march forward collectively for peace, prosperity and happiness of the nation.
The natural conditions of landform and climate have contributed in the diversity of Nepalese life style as Nepal is located between two large countries viz. China and India with distinctly different lifestyle respectively of the southern and northern belt of the country. And lifestyles of Nepalese people themselves are different in terms of regions, religions, castes, etc.
Diversity is our identity and unity in diversity is our specialty therefore our culture should be protected from undue influence of foreign one. The following steps should be implemented for the protection of diversity of Nepalese societies and promotion of National unity:
The national anthem of Nepal is in tune with spirit of unity in diversity. The national anthem states that although Nepalese being in different region, having different culture, religion and language are united and have common goal and national interest of peace and prosperity.
Unity in Diversity
There are many castes, creeds, language, cultures, traditions, etc. Different people have different language, cultures, traditions, etc. and they respect one another. To respect one another is the Nepalese culture. Chhetri, Brahmins participate with other caste-culture and activities, Madhesi, Tharusm Rai-Limbus, etc. participate in other people's programmes, all caste people observe Newari-jatras, etc. Such participation will really maintain the religious tolerance. Our constitution has also tried to maintained unity in diversity providing the rights to all equally.
Nepal is a country well equipped with many cultures, languages, traditions, religions etc. More than 100 a castes of people reside here. Those different cultures have their different languages, religions, cultures etc. Every culture of every religion is equally important. Our country is geographically divided into three divisions. Those three divisions- Terai, Himal, and Hilly region have separate identification in particular culture, religion, language and traditions. All of them have very good religious tolerance. All of them respect each other and are united although they are different. Therefore, Nepal is multiethnic, multilingual, multi-religious and multicultural country.