Note on Training Needs Determination and Methods

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Training need determination (assessment)

Training need= Expected capabilities in future - Existing capabilities

Training should be given where there is a training need, it is a gap between existing capabilities of employees and capabilities requirement of the job. Skill deficiency of employees can get failed the training needs. So, training is provided to employees to achieve human resource development goal. Training need is determined by the equation given above.

Training needs determination is important because of the following reasons.

  • Develop training objective: Properly assessed training needs are essential for developing training objective. such objective should follow from organizational and human resource development objectives.
  • Identify training responding problems: Training needs assessment helps to identify the problem that will respond to training.
  • Develop training problems: Relevant training problem should be recognized for employees and organization. Training need assessment helps to develop appropriate training programs. It helps to select appropriate training method.
  • Evaluate training: Training need assessment is essential to evaluate the outcomes of training further training needs is also determines when one's training outcomes are evaluated.

Training needs are determined in three levels.

  1. Organizational level: Overall organizational structure changed needs training. They can be strategy change, policy, rules, environment , objectives, technology, product and productivity change.
  2. Task level: Training requirement is necessary when job design and re-design is done, task relocation, change in method of doing work. procedure and process, upgrading of job functions like computerization. Change in performance standard brings change necessity training.
  3. Individual level: Training need is determined in individual level. Training need in individual level can be created by a change in human resources plan, policies and practice, change in technology, change in job description and job specification, skill, deficiency on the job.

Methods of determining training needs

Determining training need is carefully and systematically assessed. Various methods can be used for determining training needs. These methods are as follows:

Management audit: This method is used to determined training need in organizational level. It is a systematic and comprehensive analysis of organization to assess training needs. It is an examining of management and its external and internal environment. Environment may be political, legal, socio-culture, economic, technological and psychological. Environmental changes are identified to determine training needs. Organization has its own structure. It formulates different strategies and objectives. management should conduct auditing of those factors and management audit facilities training need identification.

Task analysis method: Task is analyzed to determine training need to the task level. Task are analyzed to determine training need to the task level. Task-related information are to be collected and that information is audited and the conclusion is drawn to determine training need. Under this method, task-related information is collected. On the basis of them, the performance standard is established. and training need is determined for effective task performance. Observation, questionnaire and interview tools can be used to obtain task related information.

Performance analysis method: This method is used for employee level need analysis. There should be a fit between people and performance in the organization.Training needs are identified by organizational performance analysis and employees performance analysis. Organizational performance analysis can be performance, quality control performance, sales performance, cost effectiveness performance, absenteeism, labor turnover rates, accident rates, grievances report performance etc. It determines overall organizational training needs. Similarly, employees performance analysis can be employees performance appraisal reviews, career planning discussion, exit interviews and performance test.

Training needs survey: Training need survey is also used for employee level needs determination. This method is very important method of determing training needs. Survey method consists of direct questioning to gather opinions about training needs. The survey can be of three types. They are an individual survey, group survey and competency survey.

Supervisory recommendation method: This method is used for employee level training need determination. Supervisor sees and guides the employees on a daily basis. Supervisors recommend training need if there is a gap between needed knowledge and skills and present knowledge and skills. Supervisors remain very close to the employees who identify about employee's qualification, experience and devotion towards job.

Training methods

Training is a most essential to workers or any employees. They need to develop their skills to have greater efficiency in job performance which results positively in the organization. Organization chooses training method appropriately that favors in organizational objective achievement mission. Training methods are chosen by the organization as per their resources availability and competency. Training methods are analyzed dividing them mainly in two groups. They are:

1) On the job training:

The training given to employees at the work place is on the job training. It allows participants to combine theoritical knowledge with practical knowledge. They can be apprenticeship training, internship training, job rotation training, job instruction training and others.

Apprenticeship training: The process of learning with the guidance of experienced and skilled one of the workplace is known as apprenticeship training. It is a learning by working. Such training is generally given for 2 to 5 years. This method is one of the oldest and most popuar method of on the job training. This program are effective for acquiring skills and learning crafts. An example of such training is plumbers, electrician and accountant. In the limitation aspect, it is time consuming and expensive method.

Internship training: It is provided to professional and technical personnel. This training is given to those who have got already theoretical knowledge about the job. They are a trend to make an export in real practice. Students of technical and management subjects generally undergo internship training. The trainee is interned in organizations for a specified eime period and works as an example. It is also time-consuming method.

Job instruction training: It is another type of on the job training method. Under this method, employees are assigned the job to do in their responsibilities. But experts or supervisors instructs in difficulties. It is a systematic step by step approach to teach new skills. This training is appropriate for acquisitions of motor skills and routine and repetitive operations. It consists of the four steps. They are training preparation, presentation, practice and follow up.

Job rotation: This method of providing training aims to enlarge the knowledge of employees through the movement from one job to another. Employees enhance knowledge in varieties of the job to be fitted for all kinds of job. The main aims of providing this training are to provide information about the interrelationship between the jobs. In this type of training, employees move from one position to another, thus acquiring new skills and learnings. Job rotation acquaints individuals with newer roles and challenges and makes them capable of performing any type of task.

Coaching: In this method, the superior teaches or guides the new employee about the knowledge and skills of a specifically defined job. The superior points out the mistakes committed by the new employee. This method also gives suggestions to improve upon it.

Advantage of on the job training

  • High chances of learning are possible as being job experience collection by watching and doing.
  • The trainee is motivated and can be productive.
  • The training is less costly to deliver.
  • The transfer of training to the job is of high degree.
  • Multi-skill is possible during training.

Disadvantages of on the job training

  • Productivity is low.
  • Trainee makes maximum errors.
  • Quality may be low.
  • Equipment can be damaged.
  • Trainers may lack trainee.

2. Off the job training:

The method of providing training outside of the job place is called off the job training. It is classroom instruction which is organized in the organization classroom or in the place owned by the organization. Job training program can be conducted at which place where no actual job will be performed by this method. Training is given to the employees in the separate rooms and they are sent to the job location later on. Under this method, lecture/conference, seminar, group discussion, simulation etc. are included.

Lecture method: Lecture method of training is such type of training under which trainees are instructed with job-related information by showing. It is oral communication of specific information by the instructor to trainees. It is teacher centered " Training by telling". Audio-visual aids like film, video, television, overhead projector and powerpoint make the formal presentation interesting. It is theory based training. It is most traditional and common form of off the job training and this type of method is cassroom instruction that is designed to communicate specific interpersonal or problem solving skills.

Simulation method: An artificial environment is created to place the trainees. It is an abstraction of the real working condition in labs or classrooms. Airlines use simulation exercises to train pilots. This method of training tries to develop the skill of employees to analyze the problems that come while doing real work or teaches to make capable and develop the alternatives of the solution. Computer modeling, vestibule training and virtual reality are included in it. Imaginary works are performed through a computer model. A lab to do a job is created and given to new employees before they are assigned specific job in vestibule training. The message of reality is sending to employees in an imaginary environment. A bicyclist can be taught to ride through virtual reality while they are standing on the roadside.

Group discussion method: The discussion is made on the issues that relate anticipated job to be performed. Under this method, different groups are designed under the control of different experts. Each group is drawn a conclusion on the given issues and present to job experts. Experts analyze the report of employees and correct the errors and mistakes if necessary.

Seminar method: Another firm of off the job training is a seminar. It is formal and established for effective training. Under this method, all the trainees gather in a group and the discuss the subject of common interest. Trainees are invited to provide training. Job-related issues are discussed, trainees asked questions and experts answered to their questions. Job oriented seminar can be of one day, three days or seven days. To make effective training, trainers use film, documentary, power point, overhead projector etc.

Program instruction: This is self instruction method in which knowledge is imported with the use of a textbook or a teaching machine or a computer. program instruction condenses information to be learned into organized. It is step by step logical sequences.

Vestibule training: Vestibule training is the method of off the job training. Training on actual equiptment used on the job but it is conducted away from the actual work setting a simulated work station.

Advantage of off the job training

  • Large groups can be trained simultaneously at low cost.
  • It is easy to arrange.
  • Costly errors can be avoided unique training.
  • It is a flexible method.
  • A Large amount of information can be covered.
  • Video and films can be used in the absence of the instructor.

Disadvantage of off the job training

  • Transfer of training to the job is of low degree.
  • The training motivation is low.
  • Specific needs of trainees may not be met.
  • It is not useful to develop inter-personnel skills.
  • It is one-way communication.


Kharal, S.k. (2006). Foundation of Human Resource Management. Asian.

.Acharya, B. s. (2014). Foundation of Human Resource Management. Kathmandu: Asmita.

Adhikari, D. (2010). Human resource Management. kathmandu: Buddha.

Lepak, D., & Gowan, M. (2010). Human resource management: Training and Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Training need= Expected capabilities_Existing capabilities

Important of training need determination

  • Develop training objective.
  • Identify training responding problems.
  • Develop training problems.
  • Evaluate training.

Level of training needs

  • Organizational level
  • Task level
  • Individual level

Methods of training needs

  • management audit
  • task analysis method
  • performance analysis method
  • training survey method
  • supervisory recommendation method.

Training methods

Organization chooses training method appropriately that favours in organizational achievement mission.

On the job training method

  • Apprenticeship training
  • Internship training
  • Job instruction training
  • Job rotation

Off the job training method

  • Lecture method
  • Simulation method
  • Group discussion method
  • Seminar method







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