The process of breaking of the bond is called bond fission. It is of two types :
The atom or group having an odd number of the electron is called free radical. They are formed by homolytic bond fission.
When a covalent bond is formed between two electronegative atoms, the electrons slightly shift towards more electronegative atom and bear a partial negative charge and from which the electron shifts bears partial positive charge. As a result, the polarity is produced in a molecule. So, the permanent polarity is produced in a molecule due to the different electronegativity of covalently bonded atoms called inductive effect. It is also known as field effect. It is the permanent shifting of electron pair of covalent bond towards more electronegative atom. It is denoted by (I).
The inductive effect is shown by pointing in the direction of electron displaced.
The branch of chemistry which deals about hydrocarbon and their derivative is called organic chemistry. The organic compound is the compound of hydrocarbon and their derivative in which carbon is covalently bonded.
In earlier development of chemistry, compounds were classified into two types:
Chemist tried to synthesize organic compound in the lab but they failed. Their failure led them to believe that organic compound could be prepared within the living organism and couldn’t be synthesized in a lab like inorganic compounds. Berzelius in 1815, purposed that organic compound could only be prepared by some mysterious force existing in living organism. This force was called vital force and theory was called vital force theory.
Limitation of vital force theory
In 1825, German scientist Friedrick Wohler accidently prepared Urea heating inorganic compounds ammonium sulphate and potassium cyanide.
$$ (NH_4) _2SO_4+KCNO\longrightarrow 2NH_4CNO$$
After synthesis of urea numerous organic compound like acetic acid, methane, formic acid was synthesized in lab i.e. no vital force is essential and thus in 1850 vital force theory was rejected.
Classification of organic compound
Organic compound is classified into two classes:
Homocyclic compound: Cyclic compound made up of carbon and hydrogen only are called the homocyclic compound. They are further classified into two types:
a. Alicyclic compound: the cyclic compound which resembles aliphatic hydrocarbon in most of their properties are called the alicyclic compound. E.g.
An organic compound contains two parts i.e. hydrocarbon part (non – reacting part) and functional group (reacting part). All the compounds having the same functional group show similar chemical behavior.
Importance of functional group
Pulse, Tracy. Introduction to chemistry. u.s.a: flex book, 2010.
Pathak, Sita Karki. The Text Book of Chemistry. Kathmandu: Vidhyarthi Pustak Bhandar, 2012.