Training and Learning
Concept of Training
Every organization has its goal and objectives. To achieve these goals and objectives, it has to improve in organizational effectiveness by improving personnel competencies. Personnel competency can be improved by new learning. All above mentioned are possible by training. Training provides knowledge and ideas to perform a job. Training is compulsory in the present organizational regular program. It brings changes in personnel behavior in respect of competing for the task. Effective training helps in increasing productivity and employees are made committed for organizational stability. Training is important to the function of human resource management. It helps to expand skills, knowledge and ability of any workers in the organization.
In short, it can be said that personnel requirements like knowledge, skill, personality to compete for a job develop by setting various programs which are called training. Training brings positive changes in person and they can be competent in the job. It also helps to make creative and unique ideas.
According to Dales Beach," Training is the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite propose."
According to Garry Dessler," Training refers to the methods used to give new or present employees the skills they need to perform the job."
According to Decenzo and Robbins," Training is a learning experience in that it seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve her/his ability to perform on the job."
Objectives of training
Training enhances employee capability for doing jobs. Training objectives are to bring positive changes in knowledge, skill and attitude of employees and also expands knowledge, skills and ability of employees. It aims to bring employees performance.Training is designed to help employees in acquiring better skills for their current job and development is designed to help the organization ensured that it has the necessary talent internally for meeting future human resource needs. The specific objectives of training are described below:
Update Capabilities: Training need is a continuous process which requires solving the problem of continuous upgrading of technology. Innovation is essential in competition to fulfill the changing needs of customer or consumer. Training provides innovation.
Enhancing Competencies: Changing needs of the consumer can be fulfilled by innovation. Organizational competencies are essential to equipped resources. Training enhances competencies of employees.
Developing an environment of trust: Training focuses not only on operational aspect of management but also search of roles and responsibilities. Training shows the direction of roles and responsibilities of employees. It creates a healthy environment in the organization.
Increasing productivity: High productivity helps to meet the goal of an organization. To increase the productivity employees are to be made capable updating their knowledge, skill and attitude with the updating of the technology. Training helps in enhancing capabilities of employees. It brings cost effectiveness. Training helps to minimize errors and mistakes and increase the productivity.
Providing different kinds of opportunities: Training provides varieties of knowledge and employees can perform different kinds of a job well. It increases the chances of the opportunity of upgrading in the new job posting, role of acting executive etc.
Change attitude: Training is organized with the view of changing attitude of employees. There may be a vast difference in between organizational reality and employee attitude. They may not achieve their expectation comparing with organizational reality. Training helps in changing attitudes of employees and then differences can be reduced. Sound relationship between employees and job can be established.
Socialization: Socialization is the first need for every employee. Training creates an environment for employees to be socialized. Socialization integrates the activities that result to the adaptation of employees to job with organizational culture.
Future potential: Organization has to prepare manpower for future from internal sources. They can be made ready for future expected jobs with prepare knowledge, skill and attitude by providing training. Therefore, training is a basis for human resource planning.
Importance of training
People who work in the organization need the training to enhance productivity. Training is a basis to achieve organizational goal. It improves and devlops efficiency and capacity of employees.The benefits of training are highlighted in the following way:
Improves productivity: Productivity is a need to an every organization to achieve the goal. Productivity can be increased by reducing errors and mistakes. Training gives knowledge and develops skills that minimize error and mistakes. Trained employees increase productivity but untrained employees can demolish the organization. Trained employees produce quality and quantity output
Less supervision:Trained employees are efficient in their work that they do not require supervision. Person having good training do not need regular supervision manpower. Organization's fund of supervision will be saved. Trained employees do not require tight control and supervision as they are well aware of how to perform a job
Filling manpower needs: Being trained for the job the person can fill the vacant position in the organization. Training makes man capable of doing the job. It increases person's confidence and beliefs. Such persons have chances of opportunities as well they can develop their personality too.
Quick learning: Trained people will get quick learning capacity as he/she is aware of the needs and wants of the job. Trained people are developed as positive minded. Their attitude is positive towards job and organization. So, trained people have a capacity of learning immediately.
Reduces absenteeism: Training increases knowledge and skills. It increases creativity and efficiency and automatically their responsibilities and roles are increased. Their grievances are settled and decreased the absenteeism. Trained employees adjust to the job better and there are fewer rates of absenteeism and turnover.
Minimize errors and wastage: Trained manpower can operate machines and equipment well. So that, the rate of taking place accident reduces and raw materials( inputs) are used with a low rate of wastage. Trained employees minimize wastages of resources in the organization and work both efficiently and effectively.
Competency development: Skill deficiency of employees can be improved through training. Training improves knowledge, skills and attitudes of employees that develop competencies. It helps in develops knowledge and skills on employees and helps to improves their creativeness. Trained employees can respond and adapt to the changing technology well. Trained employees enable the organization to face competition from rival firms.
Other benefits: Training is such program which is organized for the overall development of employees as well as the organization. Training benefits by improving safety, enhancing moral, organizational stability and flexibility etc.
Process of training
Training is a continuous process that is necessary for solving the problem of continuous upgrading of technology. It's a continuous learning process in the human resource management.The process of training are as follows:
Establishing a need analysis: The techniques necessary for the data collection are survey, observation, interviews etc. Identify whether training is required or not through survey observation, interviews, etc. Programmes should be developed that are best suited to their needs.
Developing training programs and manuals: This step establishes the development of current job description and standards and procedures. Identify the type of training (what and how to train) according to the requirements of the job. such as roles and duties.
Deliver the training program: This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program. The factors that incur during training are cost and time. The trainee should perform the job systematically and explain the complete job he is performing.
Evaluate the training program: This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been and methods for evaluation are pre and post survey, observation, follow-up etc. pre-survey is surveyed before training. It finds out what she/he expects to learn, its time needed and the post-survey is after training whether the person has learned what she/he needed, whether the training was fruitful or not.
Concept of learning
To be effective and efficient in the work, employee must have proper skill, knowledge, intelligence. Learning is a continuous process that helps to expand knowledge and skills. It occurs all the time. Learning is any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. It is the key to developing skills and potential of employees. In many cases skill and knowledge must be taught and learned. Learning of two types. They are formal and informal. Both types of learning are important to improve quality of work life and to make ready for change.
According to the D.S. Beach," Learning is that human process by which skills, knowledge, habits and attitudes are acquired and utilized is such way that behavior is modified."
Learning plays an important role on training in organizational settings. It assists in optimally developing the talents and for effective performance. They guide the employee to engage in behavior, which will enable the management to accomplish the goals. An understanding of learning will indicate why manager's own day to day behavior strengthens, maintain or weakness of an employee's behavior.
Process of learning
- Stimulus: Stimulus is the first step of learning process. There should be a stimulus which is clearer to the learner, in work setting, unless the employee understands the messages communicated by the management; he is unlikely to be affected in the appropriate direction as intended by the communication. Stimulus is the object that exists in the environment in which a person lives.
- Response: The second step of learning process is response. Response of learning is essential to know about the facts. Decision of learning program depends on response of learner. So, the role of response is very important in learning process.
- Motivation: Employee motivation is vital to success of any organization. Motivation induces employees to work efficiently, which finally result in increase in production ans productivity as well. However, highly motivated employee tend to be more productive and low rate of absenteeism, turnover and lateness.
- Reward: Reward is the last process of learning process which plays an important role in learning process. Reward is the incentive that satisfies a motive of the leader. It also stimulates the learner in learning process. Position, person, condition and necessity determine proper reward system.
Lepak, D., & Gowan, M. (2010). Human resource management: Training and Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
Development of human resources -- Part 2. (2013, 8 18). Retrieved from alumnus.caltech.edu: http://alumnus.caltech.edu/~rouda/T2_NA.html
- Personal requirements like knowledge, skill, personality to complete a job are develop by setting various programmes which are called training.
- To be effective and efficient in the work, employee must have proper skill, knowledge, intelligence.
- Learning is a continuous process that helps to expand knowledge and skills.
- An understanding of learning will indicate why manager's own day to day behavior strengthens, maintain or weakness of an employee's behavior.
- Stimulus is the object that exists in the environment in which a person lives.
- Response of learning is essential to know about the facts.
- Employee motivation is vital to success of any organization.
- Reward is the incentive that satisfies a motive of the leader.
Objectives of training
- Update capabilities
- Enhancing competencies
- Developing environment of trust
- Increasing productivity
- Providing different kinds of opportunities
- Change attitude
- Future potential
Importance of training
- Improves productivity
- Less supervision
- Filing manpower needs
- Quick learning
- Reduces absenteeism
- Minimize error and wastage
- Competency development
- Other benefits
Process of training
Training is continuous process that is necessary for solving the problem of continuous upgrading of technology.
- Establishing a need analysis
- Developing training programs and manual
- Deliver the training programme
- Evaluate the training program
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