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Packaging is the activity of designing and producing the container or wrapper for the product. It is an important and effective sales tool for encouraging the consumers for buying. It is powerful medium for sales promotion. It must perform all the basic function such as protection, ease of handling and storage, convenience in usage etc. and should not be deceptive and convey any deceptive message. It is the best method for attracting the consumers for buying the products.
According to W.J.Stanton, “Packaging may be defined as the general group of activities in product planning which helps in value designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product.”
According to Pride and Farell, “Packaging involves the development of container and a graphic design for a product.”
Packaging should serve the following basic functions:
The basic function of packaging is to protect the contents from damage, dust, dirt, leakage, pilferage, evaporation, watering, contamination and so on. Packaging helps in the protection of the contents of the products.Seasonal fluctuations in demand may be smoothed out through packaging. Packaging helps to protect the contents of all the available products.
Packaging helps to provide product density. It implies selecting such package materials, design, and shape that helps to use the limited space in the best way. It improves relations with common carriers, permits better use of space in storage and usage and increases the grace and poise of arrangement.
Good packaging can sell the product more easily and quickly as it works as a promotional tool. As a promotional tool, it does self-advertising , displaying, publishing and acts as an advertising medium. It is the package, size, design, color combinations and graphics that decide its ability to attract the valuable attention of customers or the prospects.
Packaging helps to provide the user convenience.The good packaging does this in a greater degree. As a result, the marketing functions of the transportation, storage, and handling are performed with ease and without wastage. Consumers are greatly assisted so long as the product is in usage. Neat packaging has brought a home reduction in inventory costs, packaging costs, space and time costs.
Packaging helps to facilitate the identification of the product. This process of product differentiation is furthered by effective product identifiers; one is branding and another is packaging. The product package identifies the product no matter where you see it, under what circumstances you see it, or when you see it. A package is product’s personality, its reality. Product identification goes easy with distinguished packaging as it adds to its personality or image.
Product mix relates to the product lines and an assortment of sizes, colors, measures, grades, package types etc. offered by the selling house. Change in product mix can be possible as packaging helps to influence weight, size, and dimensions of the product. Packaging helps to allow the product mix easily for the consumers.
The importance of packaging are as follows:
Packaging plays an important role in the creation of demand by attracting the consumers. The customers become known with the product through advertising. It helps to increase the demand of the customers.
Packaging helps to protect the product from heat, light, moisture, evaporation, dust etc. during its long passage from the factory to the target customers. It protects the products from breakage, leakage spoilage etc.
Packaging facilitates transportation of products from one place to another. It ensures easy transportation and better handling of products in transit.
Packaging helps as a guidelines for the customers.From the informative literature regarding the quality and use of the product, the customers get the guidelines. The customers are ensured about the quality of the products.
Packaging acts as a better storage of the products.Goods with good packages can be stored in the retail shop also in lesser price.
Packaging plays an important role in carrying the goods in transit and from one place to another. It is made in different sizes and it facilitates provisions for easy and open carrying.
Packaging helps to identify the product differentiation easily.It ensures the individuality of the products and one product can be easily differentiated with each other products in the market. The customers can easily identify their product of choice at the time of purchase. This helps the customers to prevent substitution of goods by other customers.
Packaging helps to reduce the cost of marketing the goods by reducing losses from damages. As packaging is helpful for sales promotion, so it helps to attain economy in the cost structure of the producers and marketers.
There are various types of packaging some of them are as follow:
Consumer packaging is one which holds the required volume of a product for ultimate consumption. It is the means of buying household. In other words, the consumer has the option to purchase the pack size which he/she considers adequate for the consumption of his/ her family over a length of time.
Transit packaging is another type of packaging. It is either for the industrial consumer’s use. The consumer package itself very often requires an outside package in which it is sometimes referred to a bulk package or an outer container.
An industrial packaging can either describe a bulk package or the package for durable consumer goods. These are the basic package types although many subdivisions can be listed which can be broadly listed under these basic headings.
A dual packaging is one which has a secondary usefulness after its contents have been consumed. The examples of dual use packaging are Drinking glasses, boxes of jewelry, waste baskets, refrigerator dishes, etc.
A good package indicates individuality of a product in a dramatic and easily recognizable way. The features of good packaging can be briefly shown below:
Convenience is one of the good features of packaging.The packaging provides size options and it facilitates provisions for the easy open of the products. The package should neither be heavy in weight nor large in size.
The packaging provides security of the products and it protects the products from dust, light, spoilage, damage, evaporation, etc. It ensures the preservation of the quality and quantity of the products.
Packaging creates confidence among the customers and it creates status and prestige of the products. It helps in the increment of status and prestige to the consumers. The product is also known by its packaging.
The package should of moderate size so that it can be kept in proper place. It should be adapted in all the places. Adaptability is very essential in packaging.
The packaging should be dependable. Dependability indicates the positive idea of a customer about the manufacturing of the product. It is very important to have dependability in the products.
The packaging should have a handsome design. The handsome design attracts the customers to buy the products. To get touch with the taste and fashion of the customers, a constant renewal of design is required. It is very necessary to design the products for making the consumers attracted towards it.
Koirala, Dr. Kundan Dutta. Elementary Marketing. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd, 2014.
Thapa, Gopal, Dipendra K. Neupane and Dilli Raj Mishra. Introduction to Marketing. Kathmandu: Asmita Books Publishers and Distributors (P) Ltd., 2014.