Introduction of Community


A community is the assemblage of two or more population of different species occupying a same geographical area in a particular time. The community has a variety of uses. Simply it refers to the group of organism in a specific place or time. The community is divided into two types:

1. Abiotic community

2. Biotic community

Biotic community is the gathering of a population living in a particular area or physical habitat. It is an organized unit to the extent that it has the characteristics additional to its individual and population components and functions as a unit. It is the living part of the ecosystem.

Major communities are those that has sufficient size and complete organization which receives solar energy but has less interaction with the adjacent communities.

Minor communities are those which are more or less dependent on neighboring communities for their trophic structure and energy flow.

Communities not only possess a definite functional unity with characteristics trophic structures and pattern of energy flow but they also have the compositional unity where there is a certain probability that certain species will occur together.

Classification of community

Basically, ecological communities are divided into three types i.e terrestrial, marine and freshwater.

Terrestrial communities

Earth is a home to a wide variety of organism. It comes in all different kinds of shapes and sizes i.e from the frozen tundra to the desert. It includes forest community, grassland community etc. Different types of environment are known as biomes. Biomes share a climate,plant and animal life. Land biomes include:

Tundra - Finds out about life in one of the world's harshest environment.

Taiga - It is the world's largest land biome. It is cold in winter and warm in summer.

Template/Deciduous forest - organism here must be able to adapt to four distinct seasons.

Grassland - It covers about one-quarter of the earth's land area.

Rainforest - Whether the rainforest may be temperate or tropical they have one thing common that is rain

Desert - They are the most extreme of the land biomes and they can be hot or cold.


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