Evolution of Tourism and Impact of tourism
Evolution of tourism
The gradual change and development of an idea, situation or objects is referred to as evolution. Hence, an evolution of tourism refers to the gradual developments of the tourism activities from the past to presents and perhaps, it will continue in the future too.
Since the beginning of human civilization in the world, travelling has been an ongoing event. The early man travelled for hunting and food gathering. Later, as society evolved, travelling became prominent but became limited to trade, pilgrimage, studies, migration, royal affairs and exploration, rather than for pleasure and entertainment. So, one can sum-up that travelling is a travelling is a human nature but tourism is a process and activities of a new phenomenon.
There were few luxury visitors who could get permission to enter in this mysterious Himalayan country Nepal.After the return of king Tribhuvan in February 1950 opened the door for foreigner waiting to visit the Nepal through the door was not totally closed far eager foreigner waiting to visit the Nepal was considered only as a forbidden land.
Some famous visitors who entered Nepal before 1950 where,
- Huen Tshang 7th century A.D.
- Capushin Taiar 17th century A.D.
- British Conolal William Kirkpatrin 1793A.D. who wrote a book called “an account of the kingdom of Nepal. He was the first English man to visit Nepal.
- Hodsong a British resident representative in Kathmandu in 1824.
- Dr. Ripley A Britain visited Nepal in 1940.
- Dr. Robert flaming who first visited Nepal in 1947.
The evolution of tourism can be divided into three phases:
The first phase
It referred to as to as tourism before railways which represent the period before 1840 A.D. where travelling was primarily undertaken for the purpose of trade and pilgrimage.
In the medieval period (12-17th century), the European had different notions of travelling. According to their belief, if someone did not visit any new places in one's own lifetime, s/he was highly neglected in the society. So, every individual was supposed to visit at least Italy, as Romo was recognized as their place of origin and a religious shrine too. This reveals that the nature of tour was spiritually oriented. But towards the late medieval period, the reason of travelling drastically changed as most people started to travel abroad for the purpose of receiving higher education during this period. The Aristocrats of the Europe used to send their children abroad for attaining higher education. This kind of tourism is called "Proto Tourism".
In the 18th century, the motive for travelling changed future. During this period sick people started to undertaken travel to 'spa' for those days, Nice in France, Baden in Germany and Carlsberg in Czechoslovakia were very popular for a spa in Europe.
Gradually, the way of taking mineral water and spa was changed to coastal areas where people believed that after taking a bath in the sea, they would get recovered. Thus, the sea bathing concept emerged. Since people started visiting coastal areas, there was a dire need to build and resorts started to emerge in such destinations.
The second phase
The second phase of tourism marks the onset of the industrial revolution. The introduction and development of railways after 1830 AD revolutionized the entire scenario of travelling. The first ever rail link between Liverpool and Manchester in the same year can be regarded as the landmark in the history of mechanized transport.
In the later years, the concept of tourism gradually evolved. In 1841 AD, Thomas cook, a Baptist by profession, initiated the concept of a travel agency. He not only operated the travel agency but also led the group outside the London. He is regarded as the pioneer travel organizer, who led the group from Leicester to Loughborough for the first time. He is also regarded as the father of the modern tourism. A few years later, some Europeans also instigated similar activities from Cook. In 1883, an agency of Mr. Henry Lunn also conceptualized modern winter sports in Switzerland. He developed the concept of adventure tourism. The business got expanded with the development of steam engine in trains and ships and ships in the 18th century. As a result, the mobility of businessmen and labours very popular. Though transport facilities encouraged people to visit different places, they lacked the confidence of receiving personal safety and security in destination chosen for visiting. Realizing the problem of the visitors, travel cheque, and American Express card was introduced in America in between 1872 to 1891 AD. This made the visitors more facilitated and secured.
In the 18th century AD, industrial revolution brought tremendous change in contemporary Europe. There was a frequent migration of the regular people to urban and industrialized areas. People who were following agriculture as their main occupation started to earn their living by working in the factories. Since the migrants worked in the factories, they got a holiday once a week, paid leave of one month annually and their purchasing power also got reinforced. Hence, the working class also started opting for travelling during holiday and resorts came into existence. All in all, the concept of tourism started to pick-up gradual momentum in this phase.
The third phase
By the onset of the 20th century, the essential components of tourism almost reached an optimal point. The general mass also realized and perceived the educative dimension of tourism and its positive impact on the economy.
To quote mark twain, ‘even heaven can be boring after a while’ stood true at this juncture. A large number of people started to visit new destinations, always from their usual place of residence, during leisure for pleasure. The journey to those destinations was undertaken solely to escape their routine life. This strengthened the tourism industry and further consolidation then the existing transportation industry as well.
After the World War II, when United Nations came into existence in 1945 A.D, the hostility between the countries almost became non-existence. The international barriers broke down and serene environments started to prevail. This made the ground for tourism industry more fertile and future fueled the prospects of tourism and its related industries. It is during this period the world economy experienced a landmarks growth in the tourism industry.
Finally, tourism has been recognized as one of the largest industry in the world. By 1960’s people not gave emphasis on tourism but also become conscious of environmental issues. There were uncountable visitors in coastal areas, which made the areas more polluted. Today, a lot of organizations, institutions, entrepreneurs, NGOs, INSOs and public sectors have focused more on the preservation and conservations of the environmental. Hence, the tourism of the 21st century can be market as “the century of eco-friendly tourism”.
Impacts of Tourism
Tourism can only be sustainable if it is carefully managed. Tourism student, researchers, and excursionist must have a clear understanding of both the positive and negative impact of tourism on the quality of life of a nation, a provinces or state, or a community. Now a question arise what are positive aspects?
The negative aspects? They need a balance sheet. Which are discussing below?
Impacts on Economy
- The source of foreign income or exchange.
- Factor in regional development
- Initial infrastructural and industrial development.
- Provides employment for both skilled and unskilled manpower.
- Smuggling of contrabands
- Unbalanced of demand and supply
- Less priority to domestic products.
Impacts on Society
- Socio-cultural understanding.
- International relationship development.
- Education about people and country.
Generally, in a younger generation, the practice of the western way of life stay and manner changes their socio-cultural outlook, which might affect the values and norms of existing cultural.
Impacts on Environment
- Rehabilitation of existing building and historical sites.
- Transformation of old houses and palaces into new uses of museums hotels and tourist attractions.
- The present concept of tourism is to keep the nature at its uniqueness.
- Natural habitat and environment were destroyed.
- Pollution to the environment.
Oli, Gopal Singh and B. B. Chhetri. Hotel management. Kathmandu: Buddha publications Pvt. Ltd., 2015. Book.
Shrestha, Dinesh; K.C, Saroj; karki, karuna; Sharma, Robin; elt. Hotel Management. kathmandu: Arcadia Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 2068,Shrawan.
- In the first phase, the evolution of tourism is referred to as the tourism railways.
- The second phase of tourism marks the beginning of industrial revolution.
- The end of two great world wars marks the onset of the third phase.
- Tourism student, researchers and excursionist must have a clear understanding of both the positive and negative impact of tourism on the quality of life of a nation, a provinces or state, or a community.
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