Notes on Methods of Cooking | Grade 12 > Hotel Management > Food Production Department | KULLABS.COM

• Note
• Things to remember

#### Boiling (100) degree Celsius

It is a cooking in plenty of liquids usually in water or in stocks. Bubbles can be seen on the surface of the pan or in the pot in which food are placed and then should roll to cooked thoroughly. The pan should be suitable size as per the volume of food to be boiled. There are two stages of boiling and they are;

• Simmering boil ( 82 degree Celsius to 99 degree Celsius)
• Rolling boil (100 degree Celsius )

Commonly, a vegetable grown above the ground are cooked in boiling salted water and vegetable grown under the ground are started in cold salted water with the exception of new potatoes and new carrots. The dry vegetable is started in cold water. Salt is added only after the vegetables get tender.

Fish should be cooked in hot liquid and should be allowed to simmer.

#### Poaching (90 to 95 degree Celsius)

It is a cooking in a small amount of liquid without bubbling below boiling point 93 degree Celsius to 95 degree Celsius. Below boiling point. The example of poaching is poached fruits, poached eggs etc.

#### Steaming

The food to be cooked is surrounded by plenty of steam from fast boiling water directly or by having the food in a basin or other dish placed in steam or boiling water. This is a slow process of cooking and only easily cooked food can be prepared by this method. It is cooking by moist heat (water vapor) by direct or indirect steaming. Indirect steaming is done when food is placed in a closed pan which is surrounded by plenty of steam from fast boiling water or steamer. Direct streaming is done by placing food in a pressure steamer.

• Food cooked by this method is easily digested.
• All nourishment and flavor are kept in a food
• Food cannot be easily over cooked.
• Pudding basins and other containers need not be filled on the top, thus allowing room for the food to raise making the food light.

#### Stewing

This is a very gentle method of cooking in a closed pan using only small quantity of liquid. The food should never be more than half covered with the liquid and the food above the level is cooked by steam. As liquid is not allowed to boil during cooking, the process is a slow one. It is a gentle method of cooking. For example; stewed lamb, stewed pork, etc.

General rules of stewing

• Have a pan ready with well fitting lid
• Cut the food into pieces, easy for serving
• Use moderate liquid, only sufficient tohalfcovered food.
• Bring just to boil and simmer gently until the food is perfectly tender. Never allow a stew to boil. "Remember, stew boil is stew spoil".

• A cheap cut of meat, old fouls, and tough or under-ripe fruits may be prepared by this method.
• Meat and vegetable may cook and served together, making an appetizing food, while saving fuel and labor.
• Stewingcan be done in the oven after another food is cooked, or it may be cooked on a very small gas or oil flame, thus again saving fuel.
• All the nourishment and flavors are retained hence the food is very appetizing

#### Braising

This combined method of roasting and sewing in a pan with a tight fitting lid. For correct use of these method requires a special pan but a casserole dish or stew pan makes a good substitute. The meat should be sealed by browning on all sides and then placed on a lightly fired bed of mirepoix. Stock or gravy is added which should come two-third of the meat to be braised. The flavoring and seasonings are then added. The lid is put on and it is allowed to cook gently on the stove or in the oven. When nearly done, the lid is removed and the joint is frequently basted to graze it. Examples of braising are braised lamb chops, braised veal shanks, etc

#### Broiling and Grilling

Broiling is cooking by direct heat with the aid of very little fat and is used synonymously with grilling. In the pan broiling, the food is cooked uncovered on hot metal such as a grill or a frying pan. Excess fat accumulated while cooking should be poured off. Broiled foods are good for diet conscious people as the amount of the fat present is very low.

Grilling can be synonymous to broiling. The food to be grilled is supported on the iron grids over the fire or on a grid placed in a tin under a gas or electric grill, or between electrically heated grill bars. There are basically 3types of grilling.

• Grilling over heat grillers

Cooking food on greased grill bars with the help of fast over direct heat is known to be over heat grilling. Only first class cut meat, poultry, and certain fish can be prepared this way. the grill bar is brushed with oil to prevent food sticking, and can be heated by charcoal, gas electricity. The bars should char the food on both sides to give a distinctive flavor of grilling. The thickness of the food and the heat of grill determine the cooking time. Grills are typicalalacarte (French choice menu) dishes and are ordered by the customer to the degree of cooking required , such as rare, medium rare, medium or well done.

• Grilling under heat (salamander):

Cooking on grill bars or on trays under direct heat is known as under heat grilling. Steaks and chops are cooked on the bars but fish, tomato, bacon and mushroom are usually cooked on trays. This method can also be used in the preparation of food au gratin or whenglazingis required.

• Grilling between heat (ovens)

Foods are cooked in a closed oven between electrically heated grill bars.

#### Microwave cooking

This is the most recent and convenient method of cooking in a microwave oven. A microwave oven is a relatively small, boxlike oven that raises the temperature of food by subjecting it to a high-frequency electromagnetic field. it works with the help of electricity. when food are placed inside microwave oven foods are cooked through the hot air released by the oven to cook food.

References:

Joshi, Basant Prasad et.al., Fundamentals of Hotel Management-XII, Sukunda Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu

Bhandari, Saroj Sing et.al., Principle of Hotel Management-XII, Asmita Publication, Kathmandu

Oli, Gopal Singh et.al., Hotel Management Principle and practices-XII, Buddha Prakashan, Kathmandu

1. Boiling is another method of cooking where foods are cooked by boiling in water.
2. Poaching is a cooking in a small amount of liquid without bubbling below boiling point 93 degree Celsius to 95 degree Celsius.
3. Steaming means cooking food with plenty of steamy.
4. Stewing is a very gentle method of cooking in a closed pan using only small quantity of liquid.
5. Braising is the combined method of roasting and sewing in a pan with a tight fitting lid.
6. Broiling is cooking by direct heat with the aid of very little fat.

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