The word computer is derived from Latin word 'computer', which means ' calculate'. Computers are used in wide verity of fields like home, school, colleges, offices, industries, banks, retail, stores, researches and development.
The development of sophisticated software allows performing variety of work such as word processing, desktop publishing, image processing, artificial intelligent expert system, advance simulation etc. The introduction of integrated circuit (IC) made possible to construct small and portable computer.
Features of Computer
- Speed: Speed of computer maybe defined as the time taken by a computer to perform a task. It takes only a few seconds for the calculations that we take hours to solve. It works in the fraction of second. Most of the computers work on Micro and Nano second. Its speed is measured in term of MHZ (Mega Hertz) and GMZ (Giga Hertz).
- Accuracy: The computers are the accurate machine that can perform large number of tasks without errors, but if we feed wrong data to the computer it returns the same wrong information called GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out). The degree of accuracy in a computer is very high and every calculation is performed with same accuracy. The accuracy level is determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in the computer are due to human and inaccurate data.
- Diligence: The capacity of computer of performing repetitive task without getting tired is called diligence. A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, fatigue etc therefore it can work for hours without creating any errors. Even if millions of calculations are to be performed, computer will perform every calculation with same accuracy.
- Versatility: The capacity of computer of performing more than one task at the same time is called versatility of computer. Versatility means the capacity to perform different types of work completely.
- Storage: Computer has mass storage section where we can store large volume of date for future use. Such data are easily accessible when needed. Magnetic disk, magnetic tape and optical disk are used as mass storage devices. The storage capacity of computer is measured in terms of Kilobyte (KB), Megabyte (MB), Gigabyte (GB) and Terabyte (TB).
4 bit = 1 Nibble
8 bit or 2 Nibble = 1 Byte
1024 Byte = 1 kilo Byte (1KB)
1024 KB = 1 Mega Bite (1GB)
1024 MB = 1 Giga Bite (1 GB)
1024 GB = 1 Terra Byte (1GB)
- Automatic: Computer is an automatic machine which works without the intervention of the user. The user is required to give the data and utilize the result but the process is automatic.
- Processing: Large volume of data can be processed in great speed. During processing there are different types of operation such as input and out operation, logical and comparison operation, text manipulation operation etc.
- Non-intelligent: computer is a dumb machine which cannot do any work without the instruction of the user. The instructions are performed at tremendous speed and with accuracy. Computer cannot take its own decision and doesn't have feeling or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience etc.
Application Areas Of Computer
- Commercial enter praises:
- Employee record
- Payroll processing
- Account receivable
- Account payable
- Stock control
- General ledger
- Reservation system
- Health and medical field
- Desktop publishing system
- Simulation ( creating virtual word as like as real word)
- Library ( landing processor)
- Recording and film studios
- Research and university