Definitions and Scope of Environment

A. Definition of Environment:

Important definition of environment science are as follows:

1. Boring:

According to the definition of Boring, ‘A person’s environment consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he receives from his conception until his death.’ Indicating that environment comprises various types of forces such as physical, intellectual, mental, economical, political, cultural, social, moral and emotional. Environment is the sum total of all the external forces, influences and conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior and the growth, development & maturation of living organisms.

2. Douglas and Holland:

Douglas & Holland define that ‘The term environment is used to describe, in the aggregate, all the external forces, influences & conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior & the growth, development & maturity of living organisms’.

B. Scope of Environment:

The environment consist of 4 segments which are given below:

1. Atmosphere:

Atmosphere implies the protective blanket of gases, surrounding the earth:
(i). It sustains life on the earth.

(ii). It absorbs most of the cosmic rays from outer space & the major portion of the electromagnetic radiation from the sun. It transmits only ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared radiation (300 to 2500 nm) & radio waves. (0.14 to 40 m) while filtering out tissue-damaging ultra-violate waves below about 300 nm.

(iii). Atmosphere also regulates temperature, preventing the earth from becoming too hot or too cold.

(iv). It saves us from the hostile environment of outer space. The atmosphere is composed of nitrogen & oxygen besides, argon, carbon dioxide & trace gases.

2. Hydrosphere:

This comprises all types of water resources oceans, seas, lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, reservoirs, polar icecaps, glaciers, & ground water.
(i). From the total water, 97% of the earth's water supply is in the oceans.

(ii). About 2% of the water resources is locked in the polar icecaps and glaciers.

(iii). Only about 1% is available as fresh water as the surface water in rivers, lakes, streams, and as ground water for human consumption and other uses.

3. Lithosphere:

It is the outer mantle of the solid earth. It consists of minerals occurring in the earth’s crusts and the soil e.g. minerals, organic matter, air & water.

4. Biosphere:

It indicates the realm of living organisms and their interactions with environment, viz atmosphere, hydrosphere & lithosphere.

Objectives, Scope and Importance of Environmental science:


It deals with many areas like:
i) Conservation of the natural resources.
ii) Ecological aspects.
iii) Pollution of the surrounding of natural resources.
iv) Controlling the pollution.
v) Social issues connected to it.
vi) Impacts of the human population on the environment.

Scope and Importance:

A strong educational background in the scientific methods is necessary for both ecology & environmental science. Ecologists & environmental scientists conduct rigorous, ethical, highly controlled studies to ensure accurate results. Professionals in both disciplines record their findings in the detailed reports can create statistical analyses when applicable, so that their results can be reviewed & built upon by other scientists.

Understanding about both ecology and environmental science is essential in formulating laws and policies regarding conservation. When governments and industries set new standards, they usually consult professionals with backgrounds in ecology & environmental science to provide the expert advice. Environmental Scientists might be contracted to analyze pollution levels & other risks factors near an industrial plant. Ecologists are needed to determine the welfare of certain populations & suggest ways to better protect endangered species. By combining the information gathered by scientists in both disciplines, authorities can create effective policies and educational resources for people to follow.

Environment studies: importance

The atmosphere studies create us regarding aware of privy to the importance of protection and conservation of our mother earth and about the destruction attributable to the discharge of pollution into the environment. The rise in human and animal population, industries and alternative problems create the survival cumbersome. An excellent range of atmosphere problems has fully grown in size and create the system additional advanced day by day, threatening the survival of humanity on earth. Environment studies became important for the subsequent reasons:

1. Environment problems are Being Global:

It has been well recognized that atmosphere problems like warming and gas depletion, acid rain, marine pollution and multifariousness don't seem to be simply national problems however area unit international problems and therefore need international efforts and cooperation to unravel them.

2. Development and Environment:

Development results in urbanization, industrial growth, telecommunication and transportation systems, high-Tech agriculture and housing etc. However, it's become phased call at the developed world. The North deliberately moves their dirty factories to South to cleanse their own atmosphere. Once the West developed, it did thus maybe in cognitive content of the environmental impact of its activities. Development of the wealthy countries of the planet has undesirable effects on the atmosphere of the complete world.

3. Explosive Increase in Pollution:

World census reflects that one in each seven persons during this planet lives in an Asian country. Obviously with sixteen percent of the world's population and solely a pair of 4 percent of its area, there's an important pressure on the natural resources together with land. Agricultural specialists have recognized soil health issues like deficiency of micronutrients and organic matter, soil salinity and injury of soil structure.

4. Need for an Alternate Answer:

It is essential, especially for developing countries to search out different ways to an alternate goal. We'd like a goal as under:

A true goal of development with Associate in Nursing environmentally sound and property development.

A goal common to all or any voters of our planet earth.

A goal distant from the developing world within the manner it's from the over-consuming wasteful societies of the “developed” world.

It is utmost necessary for U.S. to avoid wasting the humanity from extinction as a result of our activities constricting the atmosphere and depleting the region, within the name of development.

5. Want for Wise designing of Development:

Our survival and sustenance rely upon resources accessibility. Therefore, Resources withdraw, process and use of the merchandise have all to be synchronized with the ecological cycle. In any arrange of development our actions ought to be planned ecologically for the sustenance of the atmosphere and development.

6. Misra (1991) recognized four basic principles of ecology, as under:

(i) Holism, (ii) scheme, (iii) Succession and (iv) Spoken language.

Holism has been thought-about because of the real base of ecology. In class-conscious levels at that interacting units of ecology area unit mentioned, area unit as under:

Misra (1991) has recognized four basic necessities of environmental management as under:

Impact of human activities on the atmosphere,

Value system,

Plan and style for property development,

Environment education.


E.p., Odum. Fundamentals of Ecology. USA: W.B Saunters Company, n.d.

Jr., Miller G.T. Living in the Environment. Belmont, California, USA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2003.

  • ‘The term environment is used to describe, in the aggregate, all the external forces, influences & conditions, which affect the life, nature, behavior & the growth, development & maturity of living organisms’.
  • Misra (1991) recognized four basic principles of ecology, as under:(i) Holism, (ii) Scheme, (iii) Succession and (iv) Spoken languages.
  • The environment consist of 4 segments which are atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere.
  • Development results in urbanization, industrial growth, telecommunication and transportation systems, high-Tech agriculture and housing etc.

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