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Indicators, Human Development Index and Women Development

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Measuring Human Development

Indicators

An idea of how far an area or a country has developed can be found by measuring different quantities. A simple indicator is the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is the value of all goods and services produced and provided in a year. This indicates the wealth of a country, but it does not show how far the people are living healthy, knowledgeable lives. For this, many other indicators could be used, such as a member of houses with good drinking water, the percentage of the population with secondary education, or levels of employment. Each indicator can be useful for a particular purpose.

Study of income levels of some selective countries of the world are listed the table below:

S.N. Country Per capita income (US$) World Rank S.N. Country Per capita income(US$) World Rank
1. Monaco 197460 1 11 Germany 4330 24
2. Liechtenstein 136540 2 12 Japan 42150 28
3. Norway 85380 4 13 Maldives 4270 120
4. Luxembourg 79510 6 14 China 4260 121
5. Switzerland 70350 7 15 India 1340 160
6. Denmark 58980 10 16 Pakistan 1050 177
7. Ireland 49930 14 17 Bangladesh 640 188
8. Netherlands 49720 15 18 Nepal 490 196
9. Finland 47170 17 19 Ethiopia 380 206
10. USA 47140 18 20 Burundi 160 215

The Human Development Index (HDI)

This is a number between 0 and 1 that is calculated on the basis of life expectancy, adult literacy, school enrollment and per capital income (that is GNI divided by the population of the country). The HDI thus provides a composite measurement of three vital socio-economic aspects of human development: health conditions (measured by life expectancy, educational level (measured by adult literacy and school enrollment) and living standard (measured by per capita income). The HDI is measured for the whole population, but women's development is often much lower than men's. The indicator to measure women's development only is called the Gender-related Development Index (GDI).

The Gender-related Development Index (GDI) is also a number between 0 and 1. A high value means men and women have similar development. A small value shows that the women are lagging behind. The GDI falls when the development levels of both women and men in the country go down or when the inequality between their levels goes up. Similarly, the HDI is kept low by the poor level of women's development because this composite indicator is for both men's and women's development.

The Human Development index of 20 Selected Countries

S.N. Country HDI World Rank S.N. Country HDI World Rank
1. Norway 0.943 1 11 Japan 0.901 12
2. Australia 0.929 2 12 Russia 0.755 66
3. Netherlands 0.910 3 13 China 0.687 101
4. United states 0.910 4 14 Sri Lanka 0.691 97
5. New Zealand 0.908 5 15 India 0.547 134
6. Canada 0.908 6 16 Pakistan 0.504 145
7. Ireland 0.908 7 17 Bangladesh 0.500 146
8. Liechtenstein 0.905 8 18 Nepal 0.458 157
9. Germany 0.905 9 19 Afghanistan 0.398 172
10. Sweden 0.904 10 20 D.R. of Congo 0.286 187

Life Expectancy of 20 Selected Countries

S.N. Average Male Female S.N. Country Average Male Female
1 83 80 86 11 Brazil 74 70 77
2 82 80 84 12 Maldives 73 73 74
3 81 79 73 13 Bhutan 69 68 69
4 80 77 83 14 Bangladesh 69 68 69
5 80 79 82 15 India 64 63 65
6 80 79 82 16 Nepal 68 67 68
7 80 78 82 17 Congo(DR) 49 47 50
8 78 75 80 18 Afghanistan 44 44 44
9 74 72 77 19 Lesotho 49 49 48
10 74 71 78 20 Zimbabwe 46 46 45

Source: world population data sheet, 2011

Purpose of measuring human development

Every time we need to know what progress our country is making. We also have to know how we compare to other countries in terms of development and what changes there are in our country from year to year. Besides, we all need goals and way of seeing if we are going in right direction. If we know in time that our developmental process is faulty, we can make necessary changes for correction. This is why we have to calculate the human developmental index.

Method of calculating HDI

According to data above, the maximum life expectancy of world is 83 years and the minimum is 46 years. Similarly, the maximum per capita income is 197460 US dollars and the minimum is 160 US dollars. On the basis of these figures, we can calculate the HDI by applying these steps :

value 1 = \(\frac {Given\;country's\;per\;capita\;income\;-\;World's\;lowest\;per\;capita\;income}{World's\;highest\;per\;capita\;income\;-\;World's\;lowest\;per\;capita\;income}\)

value 2 = \(\frac {Given\;country's\;life\;expectancy\;-\;World's\;lowest\;life\;expectancy}{World's\;highest\;life\;expectancy\;-\;World's\;lowest\;life\;expectancy}\)

value 3 = \(\frac {Given\; country's\;literacy\;rate}{100(World's\;highest\;percentage)}\)

∴ HDI = \(\frac {value\;1\; +\; value\;2\;+\;value\;3}3\)

Women development

You know already that women development is very low in most parts of the world. They are discouraged from taking part in developmental activities. They are not skilled either. But development without women's involvement cannot run smoothly and cannot be sustainable. Research in many countries show that if their mother is well educated, the children of the family will be healthier and better- fed, they will do better at school, and will be sent to school regularly to a higher level, and the household will have higher living standards as the mother may also be able to take training and earn money in local or cottage enterprise, which they spend for the good of the whole family. From such households, it is easy to produce the skilled manpower, both men and women that the country needs at every level and in every sector. It is now clear that efforts should be made for encouraging women development.

The following measures can be vital in this regard:

  • Laws which give equal rights to men and women and their effective implementation,
  • More efforts to encourage families to send girls to school,
  • Useful skill-training to a large number of women who only do field labour.



  • A simple indicator is the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which is the value of all goods and services produced and provided in a year.
  • The Human Development Index (HDI) is measured for the whole population, but women’s development is often much lower than men’s.
  • The indicator to measure women's development only is called the Gender-related Development Index (GDI).
  • The GDI falls when the development levels of both women and men in the country go down or when the inequality between their levels goes up. 
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Very Short Questions

There are various purposes of calculating HDI, such as HDI helps to know the development achieved by the country, we can compare our country with other countries on the basis of development, to know the development activities carried out during the year and it also helps us to find out the fault of our development programs and bring the necessary changes for correction.

HDI is different for GDI in following ways:
HDI GDI
The full for of HDI is Human Development Index. The full form of GDI is Gender-related Development Index.
Measuring development of peoples of particular place or country using different indicators is called HDI Measuring development only of women of particular place or country using different indicators is called GDI.
HDI is measured for the whole population. GDI is measured only for women.

The volume of total all the goods and services produced by a country in a specific year including the total income from the foreign countries is called Gross National Product.

HDI stands for Human Development Index which shows the comparative development of the people of particular country that outcomes from the calculation of per capita income, life expectance and literacy rate combined. 

The criteria include:

  • Life expectancy
  • Per capita income
  • literacy rate
  • population with safe drinking water
  • population with safe sanitation system
  • Daily calorie supply
  • electricity consumption
  • Health services etc.
 

The reasonsor not increasing per capita income of Nepalare:

  • Poverty
  • Illiteracy
  • Poor health condition
  • Involvement of majority population in agriculture
  • Seasonal occupation
  • Lack of income
  • Lack of income generating sources
  • Unstable politics
  • Lack of long-term development
  • Disturbance in industrialization, trade and services etc

As per the formula,
i. Minimum per capita of the world to be reduced from the per capita income of the country of which the HDI is to be calculated 400-100 = 300
ii. The minimum per capita income of the world to be deduced from maximum per capita income of the world= 65000- 100 = 64,900
iii. The outcome of (i) to be divided from the resultant number (ii) above 300/64,900.
iv. The minimum life expectancy of the world to be deducted from the average life expectancy of the country of which HDI is to be calculated= 65- 25= 40
v. The minimum life expectancy of the world to be deduced from the maximum life expectancy of the world = 85-25 = 60
vi. The outcome of (i) to be divided from the resultant number (ii) above 40/60.
vii. The literacy of the country of which HDI is to be divided by 100= 60/100
Viii. Now, add the outcome of iii, vi and vii and divided by 3, (300/64900+ 40/60 + 60/100)/3.
Thus, HDI of Nepal=0.42.

0%
  • A number between 0 and 1 that is calculated on the basis of life expectancy, adult literacy, school enrollment and per capita income is called

    Per Capita Income
    Gross National Product
    Gross Domestic Product
    Human Development Index
  • The value of all goods and services produced and provided in a year is called

    Gross National Product
    Human Development Index
    Gross Domestic Product
    Per Capita Income
  • The full form of HDI is

    High Development Index
    Human Development Index
    Human Decorative Index
    Huge Development Index
  • The full form of GDI is

    Gender-related Development Index
    Group-related Development Index
    Gender-related Donation Index
    Gender-related Domestic Index
  • Measuring development of peoples of particular place or country using different indicators is called______.

    HDI
    GNI
    PCI
    GDI
  • GDI measures the development of

    only females
    Only male
    Both male and female
    None
  • One of the important indicator used to find HDI is

    PCI
    HDI
    GDI
    GNI
  • HDI measures the development of

    Only female
    both male and female
    None
    Only male
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