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Stain refers to a spot, dirty marks or localized discoloration that can be easily distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. Stains are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials.
distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. Stains are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials.
Different types of material can be stained by different substances, and stain resistance is an important characteristic in modern textile engineering. Stain removal is a skill that requires special attention, specific techniques, and long experience. Different types of stains are removed by different stain removal agents and methods. One should know to use the appropriate stain removal agent because the application of any wrong agent may harm the material for its reuse or original quality.
There are variour types of stain some of them are as follow:
Different stains will have different characteristics. To remove the stain, it is very important to identify it. This will help to select the appropriate re-agents and procedures for stain removal. Stains can be easily identified by their color, texture and odor.
The various types of stains are:
Flower arrangements is a creative and stimulating art of organizing and grouping together plant materials (flowers, foliage, fruits, twigs, and so on) which often carries a message or a theme. Flower enhances the look and makes the entire area to appear pleasing and bright. In a hotel, flowers are kept in different areas including:
Flowers carry various theme as per their colors. Hence, flowers should be chosen according to the occasion. Generally, the themes that flowers represent as per their color are as follows:
(Cellophane = a flexible thin transparent sheeting made from wood pulp and used as a moisture-proof wrapping)
Ikebana is a Japanese word which literally means ‘making flowers live’. These arrangements are plant materials. They are symbolic representations of an ideal harmony that exists between earthly and external life. In each arrangement, there is an imaginary triangle. Its tallest line represents 6 heavens. Facing and looking towards heaven is ‘Man’. The lowest line, looking up to both, is earth. It requires a minimum number of flowers and viewed from front only.
This style was pioneered by an 18th-century painter, William Hogarth. This is a very good style of the line arrangement and is a favorite at flower shows. After making the shape with these, the flower is filled in at the center and just above and below the rim of the tall content.
This is an eastern arrangement made to appear balance by adopting self-balancing shaped like “S”. This helps to produce a visual weight can be increased by tall height, compactness, stronger. Dark color or greater distance from the central axis. This can be viewed from front only.
The triangle is a popular shape for symmetrical arrangements. The first usually with flowers or foliage of fine from a paler color the next step is to establish a focal point of interest with large or darker color flower. Fill in with the flower of varied stem length, grouping color.
This arrangement is designed to be seen from all sides and is therefore chosen for a table or a room center piece. When seen from above, it is usually circular but may be broadly oval or square as well.
This is the simplest arrangement. The stem bases of the bunch are cut and then the flowers are put in a vase half-filled with water.
Some of the general rules of flower arrangements are:
"stain removal and flower arrangement" Jha, Manoj Kumar and Saroj Singh Bhandari. Hotel management. Kathmandu: Asmita publication, 2012.
"stain removal and flower arrangement" Oli, Gopal Singh, and B.B Chhetri. Hotel Management. Revised Edition 2015. Anamnagar, Kathmandu: Buddha Publication, 2015.