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Stain removal and flower arrangements

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Stain Removal

Fig: Stain in T-shirt (Source: home.onehowto.com)
Fig: Stain in T-shirt (Source: home.onehowto.com)

Stain refers to a spot, dirty marks or localized discoloration that can be easily distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. Stains are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials.

distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon. Stains are caused by the chemical or physical interaction of two dissimilar materials.

Different types of material can be stained by different substances, and stain resistance is an important characteristic in modern textile engineering. Stain removal is a skill that requires special attention, specific techniques, and long experience. Different types of stains are removed by different stain removal agents and methods. One should know to use the appropriate stain removal agent because the application of any wrong agent may harm the material for its reuse or original quality.

Types of stains

There are variour types of stain some of them are as follow:

  • Intentional stains (such as wood stains or paint)
  • Indicative stains (such as food coloring or adding a substance to make bacteria visible under a microscope)
  • Natural stains (such as rust on iron or a patina on bronze), and
  • Accidental stains (like spilling ketchup on your shirt)

Identification of stains

Different stains will have different characteristics. To remove the stain, it is very important to identify it. This will help to select the appropriate re-agents and procedures for stain removal. Stains can be easily identified by their color, texture and odor.

  1. Color: The color of the stain will provide a strong clue as what type of stain it was.
  2. Texture: By touching the surface of the stain, we can easily identify what type of stain it is. E.g. if the stain is hard to touch, it may be eggs.
  3. Odor/ Smell: If the surface of the stain is rubbed by the duster, and smelt, then we can easily identify the stains.

Types of stain Removals

The various types of stains are:

  • Organic solvent: e.g. benzene, acetone, methyl spirit, etc.
  • Acids: e.g. oxalic acids, potassium, etc.
  • Alkalis: e.g. soda, borax, etc.
  • Bleach: e.g. chlorine, oxygen, etc.
  • Oxidizing agents: e.g. sodium hydrochloride.
  • Reducing agents: e.g. sodium hydro sulfate.

General Rules for Stain Removal

  1. First of all, identify the stain.
  2. Then, classify the stain.
  3. Select the reagents to be used.
  4. Select the right procedure to be used.
  5. Proceed step-by-step to remove the stain.

Flower Arrangements

www.dreamstime.com
www.dreamstime.com

Flower arrangements is a creative and stimulating art of organizing and grouping together plant materials (flowers, foliage, fruits, twigs, and so on) which often carries a message or a theme. Flower enhances the look and makes the entire area to appear pleasing and bright. In a hotel, flowers are kept in different areas including:

  • Guest room
  • Reception/ Lobby
  • Banquet and Conference halls
  • F & B outlets (bars and restaurants)
  • Executive Offices, etc.

Theme of flower’s color

Flowers carry various theme as per their colors. Hence, flowers should be chosen according to the occasion. Generally, the themes that flowers represent as per their color are as follows:

  • Red: love and bravery
  • Black: mysticism
  • Grey: mildness
  • Yellow: cheerfulness and youthfulness
  • Blue: serenity and peace
  • White: purity and delicateness
  • Magenta: richness and luxury
  • Orange: courage and hope

Materials required for Flower Arrangement

  • Flower shears and scissors
  • Needle, plant holder
  • Bucket and basins
  • Water sprayer
  • Wire mesh, florist wire, toothpick, pins, florist tape, and rubber bands
  • A variety of containers
  • Rocks pebbles, stones, etc. to camouflage
  • Flower vases of various shape and designs
  • Flower baskets and cellophane papers
  • Paper and cardboard for bouquet arrangements, etc.

(Cellophane = a flexible thin transparent sheeting made from wood pulp and used as a moisture-proof wrapping)

Types of Flower Arrangements

  1. Ikebana:

Ikebana is a Japanese word which literally means ‘making flowers live’. These arrangements are plant materials. They are symbolic representations of an ideal harmony that exists between earthly and external life. In each arrangement, there is an imaginary triangle. Its tallest line represents 6 heavens. Facing and looking towards heaven is ‘Man’. The lowest line, looking up to both, is earth. It requires a minimum number of flowers and viewed from front only.

  1. ‘S’ shape:

This style was pioneered by an 18th-century painter, William Hogarth. This is a very good style of the line arrangement and is a favorite at flower shows. After making the shape with these, the flower is filled in at the center and just above and below the rim of the tall content.

  1. Asymmetrical:

This is an eastern arrangement made to appear balance by adopting self-balancing shaped like “S”. This helps to produce a visual weight can be increased by tall height, compactness, stronger. Dark color or greater distance from the central axis. This can be viewed from front only.

  1. Triangular shape:

The triangle is a popular shape for symmetrical arrangements. The first usually with flowers or foliage of fine from a paler color the next step is to establish a focal point of interest with large or darker color flower. Fill in with the flower of varied stem length, grouping color.

  1. All-round arrangement:

This arrangement is designed to be seen from all sides and is therefore chosen for a table or a room center piece. When seen from above, it is usually circular but may be broadly oval or square as well.

  1. Bunch in a vase:

This is the simplest arrangement. The stem bases of the bunch are cut and then the flowers are put in a vase half-filled with water.

General rules of flower arrangements

Some of the general rules of flower arrangements are:

  • Make a definite plan for any flower arrangement based on purpose, room area and location of the arrangement in the room.
  • Select containers, flowers, and foliage that express the more of the room, the occasions and the color scheme of the interior.
  • Always cover the stem holders.
  • Pour enough water into the vases.
  • Avoid mixing up a fresh flower and artificial flower.
  • Use flowers with stems of different sizes and select flowers according to the size of the vase.
  • Large flower with bright, bold colors can be used in small numbers and at the center in the tall vases.

References:

"stain removal and flower arrangement" Jha, Manoj Kumar and Saroj Singh Bhandari. Hotel management. Kathmandu: Asmita publication, 2012.

"stain removal and flower arrangement" Oli, Gopal Singh, and B.B Chhetri. Hotel Management. Revised Edition 2015. Anamnagar, Kathmandu: Buddha Publication, 2015.



  1. Stains are identified as per their color, texture and odor.
  2. there are different stain reveal treatment for particular stain.
  3. Flower enhances the look and makes the entire area to appear pleasing and bright. In a hotel, flowers are kept in different areas.
  4. Flowers carry various these as per their colors. Hence flowers should be chosen according to an occasion. 
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