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A countries heritage is all the qualities, traditions or features of life that have been continued over many years and passed on from one generation to another, especially ones that are of historical or religious importance or that have had a strong influence on society. Nepal is rich in natural and cultural heritages. United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was attracted to some heritages of Nepal. In order to preserve and promote them it gave them place in the list of the world heritages sites. There is a short description of the world heritages from Nepal. There are four sites that are listed as world heritage in Nepal. They are:
Lumbini is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. It is the most sacred place of the Buddhists from round the world. There stands a famous stone pillar erected by Indian Emperor Ashoka, who visited the place in 245 BC. Pushkarini Pond and Mayadevi Temple are also very famous. The Lumbini Development Committee of 13 countries including Nepal was formed in 1970 AD to carry out a master plan for the development of this area. Beautiful stupas, monasteries, vihars, libraries, a museum and a research center are constructed there. Many countries such as Myanmar, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, India, Thailand, France and Germany have erected vihars there. Lumbini was included in the list of the World Heritage in 1997 AD.
Sagarmatha National Park covers an area of 1148 sq km and lies in Solukhumbu district of Sagarmatha zone. This park contains mountain peaks like Everest, Lhoste, Choyu, Nuptse, Pumori, Amadablam and some villages. These peaks have long been popular among mountaineers from throughout the worlds. Several kinds of vegetation such as rhododendron, dhupi, bhojpatra and birds and animals like wild yak, musk dear, and red panda. Snow leopard, Himalayan black bear and lophophorus are found there. It was listed in the World heritages Sites in 1979 AD.
Chitwan National park is situated in Chitwan, Makwanpur and Parsa districts. It is nearly 120 km south- west of Kathmandu and occupies an area of 932 sq km of forests, marshes and rivers. It preserves rare and endangered animals like one horned rhino, spotted tiger, elephant, leopard, bear, crocodile and birds like hornbill and peacock. It is famous destination for tourists. It was recognized as a world heritage sites in 1984 A
Kathmadu valley is considered as cultural site because of these seven monuments that explains the cultural variety of kathmandu valley.
Pashupati area is situated on the bank of the Bagmati in Kathmandu, the Pashupati Area is holy place of the Hindus in Nepal and abroad. It includes Pashupatinath Temple, Aryaghaat (Cremation bank), Deupatan, Jayabageshwari, Gaurighat, Kutumbahal, Gausala, Pingalastan and the area around the shelsmantak forest. The Pashupatinath temple is built in the pagoda style with golden roof. There are about 492 temples, shrines, chaityas, etc. and about 1000 shivalingas in the area. Ancient art, architectures, sculpture and carvings are very attractive. The Pashupati Development Trust works to preserve and promote this area. It was included in the World Heritage Sites in 1997 AD.
This famous monument zone was the administrative center of many Malla and Shah kings. It lies in the heart of Kathmandu. King Pratap Malla erected the statue of hanuman (monkey god) in this palace in the medieval period. Since then it is called Hanumandhoka. One can see the masterpiece of Nepal art and architecture there. Besides Hanumandhoka, Basantapur palace, Taleju Temple, museum, Kumarighar, kasthmandap, a huge bell and kettle drum are other attraction there. It is famous tourist's destination in the valley. It was included in the list of the World Heritages Sites in 1997 AD.
It was another palace area of the Malla Kings. It is located in Lalitpur district. Here lies the famous Krishna temple with 21 golden pinnacles. The site consists of besides the palace and Krishna temple, Bhimsen Temple, Statue of Yognarendra Malla, temple of Rato Machhindranath and Taleju Temple. Patan Durbar Square exhibits master pieces of the art and architecture of the Malla period. It is famous tourist destination. It was recognized as a world Heritage Site in 1997 AD along with the six other cultural heritages of the Kathmandu valley.
Bhaktapur lies at a distance of about 15 km to the east of Kathmandu. During the Malla period there was a powerful kingdom. Now it is a major tourist destination in the Kathmandu valley. Much of the existing structures such as Natyapola temple, and fifty five Windowed places were constructed by King Bhupatindra Malla. Dattatraya Temple, statue of Bhupatindra Malla, colossal bell, kettle drum and museum are among other attractions of the area. The carvings on the walls, windows and doors of the fifty- five windowed palace are exquisitely beautiful. Bhaktapur Durbar Square was listed as a world heritage site in 1997 AD along with other durbar squares and four religious sites of the valley.
It is located in the east of Kathmandu which is one of the mot sacred places for the Buddhists. It is believed to have been built around the fifth century. This stupa contains valuable inscriptions. There are more than 45 Buddhist monasteries in this area. It is visited by thousands of pilgrims every year. It was included in the World Heritage Sites in 1997 AD.
It is a very ancient temple in Kathmandu and is a very holy place for Buddhist pilgrims. Around the stupa can be seen several shrines, monasteries and idols. Not long ago, largest idol of Lord Buddha in Nepal was constructed in its premises. A temple of goddess Saraswati, the Goddess of Learning, stands there. This is an example of religious tolerance in Nepal. It is also entered into World Heritage Sites in 1997 AD. The list of our heritages does not end here. There are many more heritages in Nepal such as Bardiya National Park, Shivapuri National park, Halesi Mahadev of Khotang, Ram Janaki Temple, Vindyabsini and Talbarahi of Pokhara, kalika of Baglung, Gosainkunda of rasuwa and swargwadari of pyuthan. All these heriatges should be preserved and promoted. The government, organizations and individuals have their parts to play for this.
This temple lies on hill top in the north of Bhaktapur. It is said to have been built by Lichchhavi king Manadev in the fifth century. It is an excellent example of pagoda style. There are beautiful idols and statue of birds and animals at the entrance. This site is important because of ancient inscriptions on stone, wood and metal. It is a venue of some jatras and festivals.
The need and importance of conservation of religious and cultural heritage is explained with following points:
Nepal is rich in cultural heritage. Many factors are responsible to cause deterioration in the modern time. Proper preservation of these resources is very urgent. The following measures should be immediately taken for the conservation.
The following are the bases of enlisting Sagarmatha National Park in the World Heritage Site:
The following are the heritages of Nepal that are enlisted in World Heritage Site: -
I like all the world heritages of Nepal equally. If I'm asked to select any one heritage from among the world heritages of Nepal, I would select Patan heritage from among the heritages of Nepal, I would select Patan Durbar square because:
The world heritage of Nepal should get national protection. But they haven't got appropriate care and protection. So, they are at dilapidated condition. Therefore, UNSECO has warned to exclude some such heritages of Nepal from the list of world heritage. We should apply the following measures to their heritages:
We have got nine heritages listed in the world. Three of them are:
Date: May 16, 2000
Dear friend Sophia,
How are you? It's since a long time that we haven't written to each other. I wish for your good health. According to my experience, I am going to describe about one of our national heritage sites.
As our country consists of so many nature based, religious based, historical sites, one is Sagarmatha. It is our pride. Among the tallest peaks of the world, Sagarmatha is the tallest is peak of Nepal. It was named as Mount Everest under the name of George Everest who had measured its height as 8848 meters. It lies in the upper Himalayan region at the place called Solukhumbu. Many people have climbed the peak with various kinds of records. Tensing Sherpa and Edmund Hillary had climbed it for the first time. In the mountain site there is an enchanting Sagarmatha National Park with protection of precious natural plants and herbs. It is home of several rare endangered species. The rare Sherpa tribe people live here with the profession of pottering, yak rearing etc. I would be describing others next time.