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Our National Heritages

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A countries heritage is all the qualities, traditions or features of life that have been continued over many years and passed on from one generation to another, especially ones that are of historical or religious importance or that have had a strong influence on society. Nepal is rich in natural and cultural heritages. United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was attracted to some heritages of Nepal. In order to preserve and promote them it gave them place in the list of the world heritages sites. There is a short description of the world heritages from Nepal. There are four sites that are listed as world heritage in Nepal. They are:

  1. Lumbini, the birthplace of Buddha
  2. Sagarmatha National Park
  3. Chitwan National Park
  4. Kathmandu Valley


Lumbini is the birthplace of Gautam Buddha. It is the most sacred place of the Buddhists from round the world. There stands a famous stone pillar erected by Indian Emperor Ashoka, who visited the place in 245 BC. Pushkarini Pond and Mayadevi Temple are also very famous. The Lumbini Development Committee of 13 countries including Nepal was formed in 1970 AD to carry out a master plan for the development of this area. Beautiful stupas, monasteries, vihars, libraries, a museum and a research center are constructed there. Many countries such as Myanmar, Japan, Vietnam, South Korea, India, Thailand, France and Germany have erected vihars there. Lumbini was included in the list of the World Heritage in 1997 AD.

Sagarmatha National Park

Sagarmatha National Park covers an area of 1148 sq km and lies in Solukhumbu district of Sagarmatha zone. This park contains mountain peaks like Everest, Lhoste, Choyu, Nuptse, Pumori, Amadablam and some villages. These peaks have long been popular among mountaineers from throughout the worlds. Several kinds of vegetation such as rhododendron, dhupi, bhojpatra and birds and animals like wild yak, musk dear, and red panda. Snow leopard, Himalayan black bear and lophophorus are found there. It was listed in the World heritages Sites in 1979 AD.




Chitwan National Park

Chitwan National park is situated in Chitwan, Makwanpur and Parsa districts. It is nearly 120 km south- west of Kathmandu and occupies an area of 932 sq km of forests, marshes and rivers. It preserves rare and endangered animals like one horned rhino, spotted tiger, elephant, leopard, bear, crocodile and birds like hornbill and peacock. It is famous destination for tourists. It was recognized as a world heritage sites in 1984 A




Kathmandu Valley

Kathmadu valley is considered as cultural site because of these seven monuments that explains the cultural variety of kathmandu valley.

Pashupati area

Pashupati area is situated on the bank of the Bagmati in Kathmandu, the Pashupati Area is holy place of the Hindus in Nepal and abroad. It includes Pashupatinath Temple, Aryaghaat (Cremation bank), Deupatan, Jayabageshwari, Gaurighat, Kutumbahal, Gausala, Pingalastan and the area around the shelsmantak forest. The Pashupatinath temple is built in the pagoda style with golden roof. There are about 492 temples, shrines, chaityas, etc. and about 1000 shivalingas in the area. Ancient art, architectures, sculpture and carvings are very attractive. The Pashupati Development Trust works to preserve and promote this area. It was included in the World Heritage Sites in 1997 AD.




Hanumandhoka Durbar square

This famous monument zone was the administrative center of many Malla and Shah kings. It lies in the heart of Kathmandu. King Pratap Malla erected the statue of hanuman (monkey god) in this palace in the medieval period. Since then it is called Hanumandhoka. One can see the masterpiece of Nepal art and architecture there. Besides Hanumandhoka, Basantapur palace, Taleju Temple, museum, Kumarighar, kasthmandap, a huge bell and kettle drum are other attraction there. It is famous tourist's destination in the valley. It was included in the list of the World Heritages Sites in 1997 AD.


Patan Durbar Square

It was another palace area of the Malla Kings. It is located in Lalitpur district. Here lies the famous Krishna temple with 21 golden pinnacles. The site consists of besides the palace and Krishna temple, Bhimsen Temple, Statue of Yognarendra Malla, temple of Rato Machhindranath and Taleju Temple. Patan Durbar Square exhibits master pieces of the art and architecture of the Malla period. It is famous tourist destination. It was recognized as a world Heritage Site in 1997 AD along with the six other cultural heritages of the Kathmandu valley.


Bhaktapur Durbar Square

Bhaktapur lies at a distance of about 15 km to the east of Kathmandu. During the Malla period there was a powerful kingdom. Now it is a major tourist destination in the Kathmandu valley. Much of the existing structures such as Natyapola temple, and fifty five Windowed places were constructed by King Bhupatindra Malla. Dattatraya Temple, statue of Bhupatindra Malla, colossal bell, kettle drum and museum are among other attractions of the area. The carvings on the walls, windows and doors of the fifty- five windowed palace are exquisitely beautiful. Bhaktapur Durbar Square was listed as a world heritage site in 1997 AD along with other durbar squares and four religious sites of the valley.


Bouddhanath Stupa

It is located in the east of Kathmandu which is one of the mot sacred places for the Buddhists. It is believed to have been built around the fifth century. This stupa contains valuable inscriptions. There are more than 45 Buddhist monasteries in this area. It is visited by thousands of pilgrims every year. It was included in the World Heritage Sites in 1997 AD.


Swayambhunath Stupa

It is a very ancient temple in Kathmandu and is a very holy place for Buddhist pilgrims. Around the stupa can be seen several shrines, monasteries and idols. Not long ago, largest idol of Lord Buddha in Nepal was constructed in its premises. A temple of goddess Saraswati, the Goddess of Learning, stands there. This is an example of religious tolerance in Nepal. It is also entered into World Heritage Sites in 1997 AD. The list of our heritages does not end here. There are many more heritages in Nepal such as Bardiya National Park, Shivapuri National park, Halesi Mahadev of Khotang, Ram Janaki Temple, Vindyabsini and Talbarahi of Pokhara, kalika of Baglung, Gosainkunda of rasuwa and swargwadari of pyuthan. All these heriatges should be preserved and promoted. The government, organizations and individuals have their parts to play for this.


Changunarayan Temple

This temple lies on hill top in the north of Bhaktapur. It is said to have been built by Lichchhavi king Manadev in the fifth century. It is an excellent example of pagoda style. There are beautiful idols and statue of birds and animals at the entrance. This site is important because of ancient inscriptions on stone, wood and metal. It is a venue of some jatras and festivals.


  • Our World Heritages are Lumbini, Pashupatinath area, Chagunarayan, Boudhanath stupa, Syambunath, Chitwan national park, Sagarmatha national park, Patan durbar square and Hanumandhoka durbar square.
  • United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was attracted to some heritages of Nepal. 

Questions and Answers

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The need and importance of conservation of religious and cultural heritage is explained with following points:

  • Field of research: They provide most valuable lessons that are fruitful to the present and future generations. The national and foreigners are interested in the research activities on religious and cultural aspects
  • Creation of people: They are related to life style and social aspects. They reveal tradition,development, arts and life style s of the ancient people.
  • Integral part of the environment: The religious places, sites, rivers and ponds are the elements of the natural environment. The temple, gumbas and masjids are the physical aspects.
  • Job opportunities: The religious and cultural activities attracts foreign people . They also visit religious and cultural sites. Job opportunities expand when tourism industry flourishes.
  • Publicity and existence: The people from other country are interested to know about Nepal. It gives importance to our religious and cultural heritage. Thus Nepal can get international recognition.

Nepal is rich in cultural heritage. Many factors are responsible to cause deterioration in the modern time. Proper preservation of these resources is very urgent. The following measures should be immediately taken for the conservation.

  • Awareness should be raised among local people about the importance of the historical as well as need of conservation.
  • Strong laws should be legislated and their effective implementation should be guaranteed to check the misuse and destructive of the heritages.
  • Financial assistance should be generated to carry out the programme or the conservation.
  • National and international organization and agencies and agencies should be mobilized collectively in the conservation of the heritages by providing technical and financial support.
  • Simplicity should be applied in the celebrating of feasts and festivals; it should be simple, cheap and practicable.

The following are the bases of enlisting Sagarmatha National Park in the World Heritage Site:

  • It is best known for the great mountain peaks and Himalayan flora and fauna.
  • Mt. Everest, the highest peak in the world, Mt. Lhotse, Mt. Choyu, Mt. Pumori, Mt. Ammandabam and many other peaks are located in this national park.
  • Rhododendron, fir trees, Bhojpatra are found here and this is the unique name of musk deer, bears, snow leopard, mongooses etc.
  • The paradise for high altitude trekking and mountaineering etc.

The following are the heritages of Nepal that are enlisted in World Heritage Site: -

  • Lumbini site: Birth place of Gautam Buddha, holy place of Buddhist, full of other cultural/religious heritages.
  • Swayambhunath Chaitya site: one of the oldest Chaitya, a unique site, a place of religious tolerance.
  • Pashupatinath site: Most famous Hindu temple in Nepal, a model of Pagodas style, surrounded by several other cultural and religious things.
  • Chitwan National Park: Oldest national park of Nepal, habitat of one horned rhinoceros, elephant, Royal Bengal tiger and so on.
  • Patan durbar square: Some excellent Malla architectures, religious sites and museums.
  • Bouddhanath Chaitya: Largest Lamiest Chaitya, holiest and most famous Buddhist chaitya.
  • Sagarmatha National Park: Highest peak of the world, famous mountains ranges, home of several endangered and rare species.
  • Bhaktapur durbar square: Golden gate, tallest temple of Nepal, Pachpannajhyale palace, museum and so on.
  • Changunarayan temple site: A model of one of the oldest pagoda styles, abode of lord Vishnu, a unique religious tolerance.
  • Hanumandhoka Durbar Square: A cultural and historical site with excellent or architectural design, museum, etc.

I like all the world heritages of Nepal equally. If I'm asked to select any one heritage from among the world heritages of Nepal, I would select Patan heritage from among the heritages of Nepal, I would select Patan Durbar square because:

  • It is the most famous historical site of Nepal.
  • It has several splendid architectural designs,
  • It has a museum with various historical facts and
  • It is a place where Newars of Patan exhibit many cultural glimpses.

The world heritage of Nepal should get national protection. But they haven't got appropriate care and protection. So, they are at dilapidated condition. Therefore, UNSECO has warned to exclude some such heritages of Nepal from the list of world heritage. We should apply the following measures to their heritages:

  • Generate awareness about the things that should be done and shouldn't be done in the site of the heritages.
  • Stop the encroachment of site by the surrounding people.
  • Renovate and repair the heritages of the site.
  • Assure security of the state and punish the thief and smugglers severely.
  • Control air, sound and land pollutions.
  • Create heritage friendly socio-economic activities.

We have got nine heritages listed in the world. Three of them are:

  • Mount Everest: It is the tallest peak of the world with 8,848 meters high. It is our pride, source of identity with the Sagarmatha National Park around it. People of the world madly interested to see it. People enjoy mountain flight and trekking in the surrounding locality.
  • Lumbini: Lumbini site is another valuable world heritage site we get glory of. It is associated to the religious past religions history where profounder of people Lord Gautam Buddha was born. The Maya Devi Temple and the Pushkarini Pond is still well preserved. Many people throughout the world visit it.
  • Chitwan National Park: It is another prestigious world heritage site representing the bio-diversity, wildlife and national park. It is at a well accessible central part of Nepal. One horned rhino, which is a scarce endangered animal is found here, the only elephant polo game is organized here as a tradition. Tourism is well promoted here.

Date: May 16, 2000
Dear friend Sophia,
How are you? It's since a long time that we haven't written to each other. I wish for your good health. According to my experience, I am going to describe about one of our national heritage sites.
As our country consists of so many nature based, religious based, historical sites, one is Sagarmatha. It is our pride. Among the tallest peaks of the world, Sagarmatha is the tallest is peak of Nepal. It was named as Mount Everest under the name of George Everest who had measured its height as 8848 meters. It lies in the upper Himalayan region at the place called Solukhumbu. Many people have climbed the peak with various kinds of records. Tensing Sherpa and Edmund Hillary had climbed it for the first time. In the mountain site there is an enchanting Sagarmatha National Park with protection of precious natural plants and herbs. It is home of several rare endangered species. The rare Sherpa tribe people live here with the profession of pottering, yak rearing etc. I would be describing others next time.
Yours friend

  • Sagarmatha National Park was listed in World Heritages Sites?

    1984 A.D.
    1989 A.D.
    1997 A.D.
    1979 A.D.
  • Chitwan National Park was recognized as a world heritage sites in

    1990 AD
    1984 AD
    1988 AD
    1997 AD
  • Lumbini was included in the list of the World Heritage

    1996 A.D.
    1998 A.D.
    1997 A.D.
    1992 A.D.
  • What is the full form of UNESCO?

    United Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    Union Nations educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    United Nations Entertainment, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    United Nations educational, Scientific and Central Organization
  • The Lumbini Development Committee of 13 countries including Nepal was formed in

    2010 AD
    1970 AD
    2000 AD
    1999 AD
  • Hanumandhoka Durbar Square was included in the list of the World Heritage in

    2010 AD
    1997 AD
    2013 AD
    1998 AD
  • The Pashupatinath temple is built in

    stupa style
    pagoda style
    shikhar style
    chaitya style
  • The Pashupatinath temple was included in the World Heritage Sites in

    1998 AD
    2000 AD
    2013 AD
    1997 AD
  • Sagarmatha National Park covers an area of

    1850 sq. km
    150 sq. km
    1148 sq. km
    1049 sq. km
  • Who erected the statue of hanuman (monkey god) in Hanumandhoka Durbar Square palace in the medieval period?

    King Bhupatindra Malla
    Lakshmi Narasingha?Malla
    Jaya Prakash Malla
    King Pratap Malla
  • Bouddhanath Stupa is believed to have been built around the

    eleventh century
    eighth century
    sixth century
    fifth century
  • Changunarayan temple lies on hill top in the

    south of Bhaktapur
    west of Bhaktapur
    east of Kathmandu
    north of Bhaktapur
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