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Concept of spreadsheet

Source: www.baycongroup.com

www.baycongroup.com Fig: Format of Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet is a table value which is arranged in a row and column. Each value can have a predefined relationship to the other values. If one value is changed, other values need to change as well.

A spreadsheet is a computer application program that helps to create and manipulate spreadsheet electronically. In a spreadsheet application, each value sits in a cell. We can define what type of data is in each cell and how different cells depend on one another. Oncw we have defined the cell and the formulas for linking them together, we can enter the data. We can then modify selected values to see how all the other values change accordingly. What-if analysis makes the complex decision-making in a very easy process. MS-Excel is one of the most popular spreadsheet application.

A typical spreadsheet program provides all sorts of tools for arranging data, performing calculations, generating charts and reports. i.e. a spread program is a software tool for entering, calculating, manipulating, and analyzing a set of numbers. The spreadsheet has a wide range of uses from the family business to the corporate earnings statement. Examples of a spreadsheet are excel2007, lotus1-2-3, etc.

Feature of spreadsheet

  • Allows data entry, storage, calculations, and presentation.
  • Formatting of data for making it attractive by using tools like font, font color, font size etc.
  • Simple computing operations like copy, cut, paste, find, replace etc.
  • Sorting of data either ascending or descending order on the basis different fields.
  • The formula and cell address are used for mathematical calculation including statistical, trigonometrically etc.
  • Allow to share workbooks and multiple users to edit in the same workbook at the same time.
  • Provide various types of chart and shapes like Pie, Bar, XY, Stack Bar, Area, 3D-Pie etc.
  • Data valid only if, By setting data entry rules.
  • The Internet features including a web toolbar and the ability to create hyperlinks and to save the files by using HTML option.
  • Advanced features like goal seek, scenario, auditing, what-if analysis, pivot table, pivot chart etc. are available.
  • Supports the high-level of features of the object link and embedded i.e. data from MS WORD can be safely and easily put and linked with data in MS EXCEL and vice versa.
  • Support natural language formulas.

Uses of spreadsheet

  • Arithmetic and statistical calculations.
  • Preparation of profit and loss account.
  • Financial forecasting.
  • Reports and balance sheet.
  • Preparation of income statements.
  • Charts (PIE, BAR, etc.).
  • Regression analysis.
  • Preparation of tax statements.
  • Database management developing in the custom application by using visual basic application.

Types of spreadsheet

  • Gnumeric- for windows and Linux.
  • Neo Office- for Mac. Started as an OpenOffice.org port to Mac.
  • Simple Spreadsheet- free and open source in cloud computing.
  • Microsoft Office Excel- for MS Windows and Macintosh. The proprietary spreadsheet leader.
  • IBM Lotus Symphony- freeware for MS Windows, Mac OS X, and GNU/Linux.
  • Lotus 1-2-3.

Basic Fundamental of Spread Sheet

  • Worksheet

Fig: Formate of worksheet

A worksheet or spreadsheet is an electronic sheet. It is a grid of cell made up of vertical columns and horizontal rows that are combined to make a flat sheet-like Accounting Sheet, Banking Sheet, and Mark Sheet etc. A spreadsheet program is also called the accounting program.

The worksheet is a large working area where we can enter, edit data and perform various kinds of calculations. The worksheet can contain text, numbers, data, formula, chart, etc. In MS-Excel 2003, there are 65,536 rows and 256(A-IV) columns in a worksheet. There are 1,048,576 rows and 16,384 columns in a worksheet in MS-Excel 2007. Thus, the number of rows and column differ from package to package.

  • Workbook


msofficesupport.blogspot.com Fig: Format of Workbook

An Excel workbook is composed of several pages of worksheets developed by Microsoft. Worksheets are combined together in workbooks to make location and organization of information easier. Sets of data and tables can be used to create a worksheet. Worksheets are important for organizing and finding data; they can be used for work information or personal information. They can be composed of numbers, words or other types of input systems. By default, there are three kinds of worksheets in a workbook.

  • Cell

    www.gcflearnfree.org Fig: Format of Cell

The intersection between row and column is called cell, in which the data can be stored. Cells are surrounded by a light gray line known as gridlines. A cell can be identified by its own cell address, which is made up of a column heading and row number. The address of the first cell is A1. Only one can be active at a time and is shown by a thick black border, which is called the active cell. A cell can contain 32000 characters.

  • Cell Reference

A cell’s location in the spreadsheet is referred to as its cell reference. To find a cell reference, simply look at the column headings to find which column the cell is in.

The cell reference is a combination of the column letter and row numbers such as A1, B3 or Z345. When writing on the cell reference, the column letter always comes first. Especially, cell reference is very important while writing a formula or addressing the cell to evaluate the values. For example, we want to add values which are at A1 and A2. So, instead of writing this formula in cell C1 = 3 + 2, write this instead, C1= A1+A2.

There are two types of cell reference which are described below:

  • Relative Cell Reference


In Excel and other spreadsheets, a relative cell reference identifies the location of a cell or group of cells. Cell references are used in formulas, functions, charts, and other excel commands. By default, a spreadsheet cell reference is relative. This means that as a formula or function is copied and pasted to other cells, the cell references in the formula or function change to reflect the function’s new location.

A relative cell reference consists of the column letter and row member that intersect at the cell’s location. An example of a relative cell reference would be C4, G15, or Z2345.

  • Absolute Cell Reference

    www.quepublishing.com Fig: Absolute Cell Reference

In Excel and another spreadsheet, an absolute cell reference identifies the location of a cell or group of cells. An absolute cell reference consists of the column letter and row number surrounded by dollar signs ($). An example of an absolute cell reference would be $C$4, $G$15, or $A$345.

An easy way to add the dollar signs to a cell reference is to click on a cell reference and then press the F4 key on the keyboard. An absolute cell reference is used when you want a cell reference to stay fixed on a specific cell. This means that as a formula or function is copied and pasted to other cells, the cell references in the formula or function do not change.

  • Cell Range


Source:www.gcflearnfree.org Fig: Format of Cell Range

It is an area or collection of a number which defines cells into a worksheet e.g. A1:E15.

  • Active Cell


Source:www.atlaspm.com Fig: Active Cell

When you select a cell by clicking it with the mouse or moving to it using the keyboard, it becomes the active cell. The name Box, on the left of the formula bar, displays the reference of the active cell.


Dilli , S. P., Singh, k. E., Khadka , D., Bhatta, K. D., Baral, N., Saud, R. S., . . . Dangi, R. (2015). Fundamental of Computer Science. Kathmandu: KEC publication and Distribution.

Shrestha,Shrestha & Manandhar, s. (2014). Computer Essential.Kathmandu: Ashmita publication.

  1. Spreadsheet application is computer programs that let us create and manipulate spreadsheet electronically.
  2. Spreadsheet is used for various purposes like calculation, statement, forecasting , etc.

Types of Spreedsheet

  1. Gnumeric- for windows and Linux.
  2. Neo Office- for Mac. Started as an OpenOffice.org port to Mac.
  3. Simple Spreadsheet- free and open source in cloud computing.
  4. Microsoft Office Excel- for MS Windows and Macintosh. The proprietary spreadsheet leader.
  5. IBM Lotus Symphony- freeware for MS Windows, Mac OS X and GNU/Linux.
  6. Lotus 1-2-3.

Basic Fundamental of Spreadsheet

  1. Worksheet
  2. Workbook
  3. Cell
  4. Cell Reference
  5. Relative Cell Reference
  6. Absolute Cell Reference
  7. Cell Range
  8. Active Cell

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whole excel notes i mean red the notes and use the excel

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