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it is known as "In Vitro fertilization" developed to over come infertility ,due to problem of fallopian tube .But it turned out that it was succesfull in many other infertilized situations .As well the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection address the problem of male infertility, to large extent .Thus for IVM to be successful the donated oocyte can be fertilized in a crucible.If fertilization is successful the fertilized egg will transferred into the uterus within which it will develop into embryo :-
1 ovarian stimulation.
2 oocyte retrieval.
3 IVF laboratory.
4 Embryo transfer.
5 post transfer.
6 surrogate mother.
risk of multiple birth.This is directly related to the practice of transferring multiple embryo, at embryo transfer multiple birth are related .IT increase risk of pregnancy loss , oberstical complication , prematurity and neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage strict limits on number of embryo.That may be transferred have been enacted in some countries to reduce, the risk of hih high order multiples.But are not universal followed or accepted sirk of stimulation is develpled of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
this issue of birth defets remains a controversial topic" IVF" a majority of studies do not show , a significant increase after use of IVF .Some studies suggest higher rates for a ICSI , which other do not support this finding major birth.Defect includes chromosomal abnormalities denetic imprinting defect and multiple organs abmornalities.
Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069
Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.
Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.