Networking Architecture

Network Operating System

A network operating system is a computer operating system that is designed primarily to support workstations, personal computers and old terminals that are connected on a local area network. They are the server versions of the Windows, Unix, Linux Solaris etc. The computer in which NOS is installed act as a server and is ideal for file sharing and other network-related jobs. NOS are also designed for client computers and provide networking functions, so for some NOS the distinction with a stand-alone operating system are not obvious. The NOS should provide file and print sharing, account administration for users, and security functions. NOS is equipped with security modules for controlling the security of the server or client computer, protocols for data transfer (for file and printer sharing) and administrative tools for account administrations. The NOS can be run according to two model of computer architecture.

The networking architecture or network model specifies how computers on the network interacts and communicate with each other. The network of the personal computers may use Client-server Network or Peer-to-Peer Network.

Client Server Network

In it, computers are connected to a central device (server) and communication is done through it. The server is the main computer which gives services to the workstation. The server computer provides resources to the workstations when the request is made. An unauthorized person cannot access the resources of the server.There are different types of server like print server, file server and network server, etc.

Advantages of Client-Server Network Model

  • An authorized person can only access the resources of the network.
  • It is more secured than peer-to-peer network.
  • All the workstations can be managed from a single server computer.
  • The required application can be installed on the server computer instead on individual workstation.

Disadvantages of Client-Server Network

  • All the workstation has to depend upon server computer.
  • It is difficult to set up client-server network.
  • A trained administrator is required to handle it.

Peer to Peer Network

It is sometimes called work groups. In this network, all the computers have equal responsibilities. Each computer has access to at least some of the resources on all the computer. Each computer in this network has equal right. It is suitable for only small geographical areas such as small rooms, building, school, etc.

Advantages of Peer-to-Peer Network

  • It is easy to set up peer-to peer network than client-server network.
  • Each computer in the network has equal right and can determine resources to be shared.

Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer Network

  • It has low level security than client-server network.
  • The expansion of network is limited.
  • The network performances degrades with heavy load.

  • The networking architecture or network model specifies how computers on the network interacts and communicate with each other.
  • The network of the personal computers may use Client-server Network or Peer-to-Peer Network.
  • The server computer provides resources to the workstations when the request is made.
The differences between server and workstation are as follows:

Server Workstation
A server is an application or device that performs service for connected clients as part of client server architecture. A workstation is a personal computer that is used for high end applications such as graphic design, video editing,
It is the place on the computer which controls and manages other computer. It is the place where the client works
Web servers, application servers etc... are the examples of servers. Video and audio workstation are the examples of workstation.

The differences between hub and switch are as follows:

HUB SWITCH
It transmits the data packets to all the nodes connected on the network. It does not transmit the data packets to all the nodes connected on the network.
It cannot reduce the amount of unnecessary network traffic. It reduces the amount of unnecessary network traffic and improves the network performance.
Modem transfers data from one computer to another computer through telephone line. Modem accepts the data from computer and convert into analog signals using modulation procedure and these analog signals are send over telephone lines. The signals that come through telephone lines are reconverted back to binary form by demodulator. In this way, modem helps to transfer data from one computer to another.

The different types of computer networks are as follows:

Local Area Network (LAN)
A LAN is a small network of computers within small area like room, buildings and campus. In local area network the cables are used as transmission channel. Nowadays, instead of cables wireless media are used as transmission channel.

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
A MAN is a larger network of computers than a LAN within a city or in between neighboring cities. A MAN can be formed by joining two or many groups of LAN. Especially big companies, banks, offices etc... use MAN to connect with their branches. In MAN cables and unbounded communication media are used as the transmission channel.

Wide Area Network (WAN)
A WAN is the very large networks of computer in a wide geographical area such as country, neighboring countries, continent and neighboring continents. A WAN can be formed by joining many groups of LANs and MANs. Especially international organizations, banks, companies etc. use WAN to connect their branch. The Internet and Intranet (built for one particular organization and are private) are the WANs.

The differences between client-server network model and peer-to peer network model are as follows:

Client-server Network Model Peer-to-peer Network Model
It is a network model where there is at least one server and one or more workstations. It is a network model where there are two or more client and no server.
In this model, all the rights are with only server computer. In this model, all the computers have equal right.
It is known as domain model. It is known as workgroup model.
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  • ___________ model specifies how computers on the network interacts and communicate with each other.

    Computer Networks
    Networking Topology
    Networking Architecture
    Computer Policy

  • Which of the following is the type of Networking Architecture?

    LAN
    Bus topology
    Client Server Network
    Simplex
  • Which of them is also known as work groups?

    Client Server Network
    Peer-to-Peer Network
    Ring Topology
    Star Topology
  • Which of them is the disadvantage of Peer-to-Peer Network?

    None of them.
    A trained administrator is required to handle it.
    The expansion of network is limited.
    All the workstation has to depend upon server computer.
  • In which network all the workstation has to depend upon server computer?

    None of the answers are correct
    Client Server Network
    Peer-to-Peer Network
    Both peer-to-peer and client server
  • What is centralized network?

    None of them
    Network where there is no central authority.
    Network based on direct cabling from the terminals.
    Powerful and wide ranging network.
  • What is Peer-to-Peer network?

    Powerful and wide ranging network.
    None of them
    Network based on direct cabling from the terminals.
    Network where there is no central authority.
  • What is client/server network?

    Network based on direct cabling from the terminals.
    Network where there is no central authority.
    Powerful and wide ranging network.
    Network operating system.
  • What is BEUI?

    Device found in smaller networks.
    Device which amplifies signals before re-transmission.
    A connection between sender and receiver.
    Device that translates data that specifies network program use.
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