Notes on Metal | Grade 12 > Hotel Management > House Keeping Department | KULLABS.COM

Metal

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Metal refers to a hard shining substance such as gold, silver, brass, copper, iron, steel, etc which can be as a whole or part of many fixtures, fittings, and items of furniture. The impurities present in the atmosphere readily tarnish the metals. The metals can be used in door and window fittings, wall panels, light panels, sanitary wares, restaurant, cutlery, cooking utensils, guest room furniture. Most metals get tarnished, scratched or rusted if not treated or protected.

Following are the most commonly used metal in the hotel industry.

Aluminum

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Fig: Aluminium utensil (Source: Utendwww.wikihow.com)

Aluminum is lightweight metal which is silvery in color and highly malleable and ductile. It is generally used to make window frames, partition walls, furniture items, doors and window fittings. It cannot be tarnished by air which means, it cannot be rusted.

Equipment and materials used for cleaning silver are:

  • Aprons
  • Plastic Sheet
  • Duster
  • Synthetic Detergent
  • Soft steel-wool
  • Water
  • Lemon juice
  • Wax polish and borax

Aluminum cleaning procedure:

  • Wear the apron and cover the working area by a plastic sheet.
  • Dust the article with the help of clean duster.
  • Wash the article by the hot solution synthetic detergent and scrub using soft steel- wool.
  • Discoloration can be removed by boiling a solution of water and lemon juice in them.
  • Rinse the article and then dry it.
  • Polish the article with liquid wax polish to maintain the glow.

Steel

es.aliexpress.com
Fig: Steel utensil (Source: es.aliexpress.com

Steel is also used in many places in the hotel industry. Mostly stainless steel is used in the hotel because it doesn’t rust. It is a hard and durable metal having a mirror finish. It is an alloy of iron. Steel is sometimes galvanized or enameled to prevent corrosion. Steel is used for making cutlery, protective paneling, sanitary ware, furniture, and so on.

Equipment and materials used in steel cleaning:

  • Soft nylon scrubber
  • Linen
  • Spray cloth, bucket, water
  • Apron, plastic sheet
  • Synthetic detergent
  • Sodium bicarbonate

Cleaning procedure of steel:

  • Wear the apron and cover the working place by a plastic sheet.
  • Dust the article with the help of duster.
  • Wash the article in a hot solution of synthetic detergent using a soft nylon scrubber.
  • Rinse the article with clean water. Then dry it.
  • Buff with a linen cloth.
  • Apply sodium bicarbonate to remove the greasy stain from the article.
  • Again wipe it and make it dry.
  • Apply polish to the article for fine shining.

Copper

www.mauvielusa.com
Fig: Copper utensil (Source: ww.mauvielusa.com)

Generally, copper is used for wall paneling; counter tops in bars and restaurants, bowls, and vases in lobbies and guestroom and utensils in the kitchen. Copper tarnishes due to the presence of impurities in the atmosphere.

Equipment and materials used for cleaning copper:

  • Aprons
  • Plastic sheet
  • Duster
  • Warm water
  • Salt
  • Fine sand
  • Vinegar
  • Flannel cloth
  • Bucket
  • Brush
  • Cotton
  • Brasso
  • Rags

Copper cleaning procedure

  • Wear the apron and cover the working area by a plastic sheet.
  • Dust the article with the help of clean duster.
  • Wash the copper with warm water. Then rub it with a mixture of salt, fine sand and vinegar using rags to clean.
  • Again rinse with warm water and dry with a flannel cloth.
  • Take some cotton and apply brass polish and rub with soft duster which will provide shine to the article.
  • At last clean and clear the working area.

Silver

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Fig: Silver plate(Source:www.ehow.com3)

Silver is a naturally soft metal that is found in the earth. It is a white metal that (shines when polished. It is widely used in the F&B as EPNS (Electro Plated Nickel Silver) equipment. Silver tarnishes due to the presence of sulfur present in the air.

Equipment required for silver cleaning:

  • Apron
  • Plastic sheet
  • Soft cloth’
  • Bucket
  • Detergent powder
  • Water
  • Duster
  • Silver polish (silvo)
  • thinner

Cleaning procedure of silver:

  • Wear the apron and cover the working are by a plastic sheet.
  • Dust the article with the help of duster.
  • Wash the article with a hot water solution of detergent and scrub it by the piece of cotton cloth.
  • Rinse the article in an enameled tray.
  • As soon as the articles are cleaned, drain the water away, wipe it and make it dry.
  • Make a mixture of thinner, water, and detergent. Then use the mixture of the article with the help of a brush.
  • Rub the article by brush, which will help to remove the stain from the article.
  • Apply the silver polish to the article. Then rub it nicely until it shines.
  • Lastly, clear the working area.

Chromium

Fig: Chromium door lock (Source: bestlockingsolutions.com)
Fig: Chromium door lock (Source: bestlockingsolutions.com)

It is a white metal that is used for covering objects with the shiny protective surface. Chromium fittings are extensively used in the bathroom in the form of taps, handles, faucets, shower rose, shovel, etc. Its shiny finish cannot be readily tarnished with the presence of impurities in the air. However, it becomes water spotted and greasy in the area where soap and water are used.

Care and cleaning:

In order to clean such greasy surface make a solution of Luke warm water and vinegar. Apply on the surface and carry out elbow grease with a dry duster. One should always ensure that the surface doesn’t have any remains of water droplets. Otherwise, on drying, these droplets will once again make the surface stained.

Brass

Fig: Brass utnesil (Source; www.bidorbuy.co.za)
Fig: Brass utensil (Source: www.bidorbuy.co.za)

The term brass is described as a golden-drown alloy of copper and zinc. It is used in making door and window fittings, stair rods and railings. It is an alloy of copper and zinc. It is tough and shiny metal, which is widely used in the public area of the hotel for furnishing. Brass tarnishes and scratches easily.

Equipment required in brass cleaning:

  • Apron
  • Plastic sheet
  • Duster
  • White flour
  • Salt
  • Vinegar
  • Oxalic acid
  • Soda solution
  • Brasso
  • Cotton
  • Bowl
  • Warm water

Cleaning process of brass:

  • Wear the apron and cover the working area by using a plastic sheet.
  • Dust the article with the help of clean duster.
  • Rub the articles with a paste of white flour, salt and vinegar in equal parts.
  • Wash the article with warm water. Then dry it by using a clean duster.
  • Polish the articles with brass or kiwi kleen brass by using damp rags or cotton.

References:

"Metal" Jha, Manoj Kumar and Saroj Singh Bhandari. Hotel Management. reprint 2013. Kathmandu: Asmita Publication, 2012.

"metal" Oli, Gopal Singh and B.B Chhetri. Hotel Management. Revised Edition 2015. Anamnagar, Kathmandu: Buddha Publication, 2015.



  1. Silver tarnishes due to the presence of sulfer in the air.
  2. Brasso is used to clean brass.
  3. Silvo is used to clean silver.
  4. Chromium doesn't get easily tarnished.
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