the chemical subustance produces by the microorganism .These susbstances are capable of inhibition of the growth of the organisms ,the antibiotics have different properties, however, the suitable anitibiotics to use as medicine should be some important properties .
1 Able to destroy a variet of pathogenesis microorganism.
2 Should not allow develop resistant in the body of the host against other microganism.
3 should not have any side effect.
4 should not destroy usefull microorganism.
there are many antibiotics used in medicine some are given below :-
Antibiotics Source uses:-
penicillin penicillin crysogenum Sore throat ,rheumatic fever ,tonsillitis , pneumonia
Streptomycin Streptomyces griseus TB, Pneumonia ,meningitis
tetracycline Streptomyces aurephaciens Pneumonia ,whooping cough
bacittracin Bacillus lincheniforms Syphilis, lymphonnema
the 1st man to discover Vaccine is Louis Pasteur on july 6th 1885 ,when he treated young boy against rabies .he explained by giving a small amout of rabies vacciene from the dog’s spinal cords and give it to the boy ,who is betten by the rabies dog.in this way he proved out to be rite and discovered a vaccine.a disease germ produes a toxic chemical substance after entering the human being bodys this chemical subustance is used to destroy immune system of the human being called as "antigen"and the proteinous subustance that, has been created by the body against the antiden is called anti body. the bodys to fight against the foriegijne boyds nad toxic material is called imuunity . so they are of types natural or acquired .
the immunity power of the body that comes naturally is called natural or in born immunity .
the imunity acuquried by person after birth is called acquired imuunity .this kind of immunity is generally gained by stimulating from outsided .they are also 2 typoes "active" and "passive" :-
there are different types of vaccines the vaccine s perspired by killed pathogens organism are called killed vaccine. eg :-typhoid vaccine chlarea vaccine etc. the vaccine prepared by destroying the toxic present in the organism with retention of the anti ensic properties is called toxoid.eg tT,such a vaccine is called attenuated living vaccine .Recently genetic engineering enables to produce the new vaccine against few disease.eg hepatitis B vaccine ,these synthesized vaccine re called 2nd generation vaccine.hence depending upon the nature of the vaccine categorized into two types:-
1 First generation – vaccines produced by the traditional method.
2-second generation vaccine – they produced by genetic engineering method.
amniocentesis is the common prenatural test ,in which small sample of the monistic fluid surrounding the foetus is removed and examined to check ,how long has been performed in late pregnecy to assess anaemia in babies with "Rh disesase" and to find out foatal trimenters of prenect to diaginosis :-
animniocentesis may be offered because of
1 maternal age.
2 Aprevious child or pregnecy with the birth defect .
3 Suggestive screening test results.
4 other family history.
it is prefred by inseryong a need into through uteus and removing some of the amonitic fluid, that surrounds the foetus.during the procedure , the mother is laid into her back on the table her belly is cleansed with an iodine solution and the physician using the "ultra sound " to guid her inserts a thin need through the abdmen and inserts an into uterus into the amniotic sac .After that the physician is allowed to check the by" ultra sound" to check the condition of the babdy, weather its is right or in good condition or not.
the baby may dies during this process a chance of miscarriage is possible in this process.
1 sex determination.
2 Metabolic disorder.
3 CAonginaital disorder.
the condition may help to conform , wether the baby is producing any effect to the mother or not .And be done abortion during this process as well:-
there are may thing thal all women an do to improve,their chance of having a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.
1 plans for pregnancy.
2 get early and regular diet .
3 bein pregnancy at the health weight.
4 stop drinking and smoking.
5 and much other obtainable of the healthy behavior.
Agrawal, sarita. principle of biology. 2nd edition . kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068 ,2069
Mehta, Krishna Ram. Principle of biology. 2nd edition. kathmandu: Asmita, 2068,2069.
Jorden, S.L. principle of biology. 2nd edition . Kathmandu: Asmita book Publication, 2068.2069.