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To have a particular type of formation of land, climate, temperature, vegetation, etc is called ecosystem. The ecosystem is the result of the combination of living and non-living things. Ecosystem affects different living things, cultural and different economic activity.

Mountain Region

  1. Physical aspects
    Mountain region is situated between 4800m to 8848m in the north from east to west. In the eastern part, snow falls above 5000 metres and in the western part snowfall above 4000 meters. The climate is cold and dry. There are many mountain peaks like Sagarmatha, Langtang, Kanchenjunga, Annapurna etc. There are 16 districts in the mountain region of our country. Mountain region is divided into main Himalaya, inter Himalaya and outer Himalaya.
  2. Biological aspects
    The people living in mountain region grow barley, radish, apple, etc. The main tribes of people living in mountain region are sherpa. bhotias, lepcahas, etc. The main trees are rhododendron, bhojpatra, dhupi, salla, deodar etc. Above 4000 meter, only bush,bushes and grass is found, no trees are found. Here Snow leopard, Wild bear, Pheasant are the main animals. Those animals and trees are found which grow in less oxygen and survive. These animals can't survive in Terai region.
  3. Socio-economic aspect
    Land is less fertile but suitable for animal rearing. There is meadow from Kaligandaki Gorge to Arun and Barun valley. Humla, Jumla and Manang are basically valleys. People live in river basin and slope lap of mountain. Sherpa, Thakali, Gurung, are the main race.Their main festival is Loshar. Muktinath, Gosainkunda are the main heritage. Palanchowk, Namche, Chame, Bhaj Khola are the main places. Its house food occupation is totally different from others. 73% people are living here.


Hill Region

  1. Physical aspects
    There are 39 districts. Churia Range is situated in the southern part of this region.There are several hills of different shapes and sizes formed by terraces and narrow plain areas.It is divided into 3 regions named Mahabharat, Middle areas and Churia.
  2. Biological aspects
    There are dense and thin forests in this region. The main plants are Sal, Katus, Chilaune, Bamboo, and different types of pine. Rhododendron, Kharsho, Deodar, Sissau, Khayar and other plants are found in higher part of this region. It is habitat for different types of animals, birds and other valuable organisms. This region is suitable for horticulture and livestock farming. In this region, people cultivate a variety of cereal and cash crops.
  3. Socio-economic aspects
    People cultivate maize, millet, rice, barley and wheat with other inner crops. The farmers depend onrainfall for agriculture because there is no irrigation facility. In thesmall valley and narrow plain area, people cultivate rice. This region is suitable for horticulture, livestock farming, cereal and cash crops. The farmers raise animals such as cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. Brahmin,Chhetri, Newar, Rai, Limbu, Magar, Tamang, Gurung, Thakali, Kami and Sarki are the main races.


Terai Region

  1. Physical aspects

    It is from Mechi to Mahakali which includes 20 districts. 23% of the land is covered with Terai region. It has been formed with fine and fertile soil. Sub-regions of the Terai are Inner Terai, Bhahar Terai and Main Terai.

  2. Biological aspects

    Tiger, Elephant, Rhinoceros, Deer are the main animals. Sal, Katus, Chilaune, Sissau, Pipal are the main plants. Rice, wheat, maize, tobacco, sugarcane and oilseed are the main crops. Fish farming is popular in this region.

  3. Socio-Economic aspects

    It is called store of grain. Cottage and large industries have been in operation. Agriculture, business and service are the main occupations. Biratnagar, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, Birgunj and Nepalgunj are the main cities. Rajbansi, Rajput, Tharu are the main castes in Terai.

  • Ecosystem is the result of the combination of living and non-living things.
  • There are 16 districts in the mountain region, 39 districts in the hilly region and 20 districts in terai region of our country.
  • Hilly region is divided into 3 regions named Mahabharat, Middle areas and Churia.
  • Terai region is also known as 'Bread Basket' of Nepal.

Questions and Answers

Click on the questions below to reveal the answers

Geographical region is the physical division of the country on the basis of geo-natural factors, like-topography, altitude, climate etc.
Nepal has been divided into three major divisions on the basis of its physical features. They are the Himalayan, Hill and Terai. Among them, the Himalayan region covers 15% of Nepal's total land. The entire Himalayan region has so many high mountains. The region has rough and rocky soil. There are coniferous forests. It mostly remains dry and favours least for human settlement and farming. There are different lakes in this region, like Tilicho, Shey-phoksundo etc.
The climate of Himalayan region is very cold. The average annual temperature remains around 10oC and rainfall is too less that it remains around 30cm yearly. About two percent land only is cultivable in this region. The cultivable area includes river basin and windward slopes of the hills. Most of the people depend on animal husbandry and some on tourism and mountaineering.

Mountain region Hilly Region
Mountain region lies in the north part of Nepal. It is the physical region of the country. The climate and lands of this region above 4500 meters are not favorable for other human beings in compare to other region of Nepal. This region is not richer in biodiversity comparing with hilly region. This region is situated in the middle of the mountain and Terai region. It lies between the altitudes of 610 meters to 4877 meters above the sea level. It contains of 68% of total area and known as largest physical region in comparing to other region.
Land is not favorable for agricultural production. This region is rich in biodiversity.
Land is not so productive. Land is a bit more productive than mountain.

  • There are ______ districts in mountain region.

  • Nepal is divided into ______ regions.

    none of the options are correct
  • Terai region is also known as ______of Nepal.

    all the options are correct
    area for agriculture
    bread basket
    industrial area
  • The main tribes of people living in mountain region is ______.

    none of the answers are correct
  • How much % of land is covered with Terai region?

  • 46.7% is the total population covered by ______.

    hilly region
    Terai region
    mountain region
    none of the options are correct
  • Arun and Barun valley are located in ______.

    hilly region
    Terai region
    all the options are correct

    mountain region
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prakash rauniyar

Ask any queries on this note.difference between ecosystem of terai and hilly region?

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Ashish Phuyal

Describe the ecosystem of mountain region.

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