Notes, Exercises, Videos, Tests and Things to Remember on Sexual Reproduction in Animals
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After meiosis, the male reproductive system produces sperm (male gamete) and the female reproductive system produces egg (female gamete). Then male releases its gamete that fuses with female gamete. The fusion may be internal (in higher organisms) or external (in lower organisms). If it is external then a medium, that carries male gamete, is required and mostly it is water. After fertilization, the egg becomes zygote and undergoes mitosis to become an embryo. Embryo again with the help of mitosis becomes a new individual.
|Male gamete||Female gamete|
|1. It is also called microgamete, as it is smaller than female gamete.||1. It is also called mega gamete, as it is larger than male gamete.|
|2. It is motile as it can swim with the help of flagella.||2. It is immotile.|
|3. It is produced after meiosis in male reproductive cells.||3. It is produced after meiosis in female reproductive cells.|
|1. It is formed after meiosis in male and female reproductive cells.||1. It is formed after the fusion of male and female gamete.|
|2. It contains haploid number of chromosome.||2. It contains diploid number of chromosome.|
|3. Gamete does not divide further.||3. Zygote does divide further and give embryo.|
The fusion of male gamete and female gamete during the sexual reproduction of organism is called fertilization.
i. The fusion of male and female gametes takes place outside the female's body.
ii. The embryo is not protected from external injuries as it develops outside.
i. The fusion of male and female gametes takes place inside the female's body.
ii. The embryo is protected from external injuries as it develops inside the female's body.
i. It is produced by females through meiosis cell division of reproductive cells.
ii. It is haploid (n) in nature, i.e. it has half the number of chromosomes as that of parent cell.
iii. It does not have an independent existence.
i. It is formed as a result of the fusion of male and female gametes.
ii. It is diploid (2n) in nature, i.e. the chromosomes exist in pair.
iii. It has an independent existence.
1. It is the transfer of pollen grains from stamen to stigma.
2. It takes place outside the ovary.
1. It is the fusion of male gamete with the female gamete.
2. It takes place inside the ovary.
The reproduction in which male and female gametes fuse to form a zygote is called sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction brings variation among the offspring of the same parents. So, sexual reproduction is necessary for the evolution and origin of new species.
The organism that has both male and female reproductive parts in the body is called hermaphrodite. As earthworm has both male and female reproductive parts in itself, it is a hermaphrodite.
The two significances of sexual reproduction are:
Ocytes are ______.
ova that have not yet completed the oogenesis process
formed after ovulation
the locations on chromosomes where ova are produced
the male equivalent of ova