Note on Positive & Negative motivation & Maslow's Need hierarchy theory

W3Schools
  • Note
  • Things to remember
  • Exercise

Motivation

source:sirmotivate.com
source:sirmotivate.com

Motivation, as it is clearly known to us, is the process of inspiring, encouraging and inducing the employees towards their jobs for the attainment of the objectives. There are several ways to classify the motivation. The motivation can be classified mainly into four groups and they are:

  • Financial and non-financial motivation
  • Individual and group motivation
  • Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • Positive and negative motivation

From among above-mentioned classes of motivation, positive and negative motivation is taken for our discussion.

  • Positive Motivation

Positive motivation is that process in which a manager attempts to influence the employees’ behavior in such a way which could enhance the courage and zeal towards the job. Positive motivation is virtually a kind of technique to inspire the subordinates. It is concerned with the incentives such as an increase in salary, allowances, benefits, provision of promotion, rewards, and others; achievement such as praise, encouragement, acceptance by group and respect by the management. Positive motivation may be financial or non-financial or individual or group motivation.

  • Negative Motivation

Negative motivation is understood as the act of forcing the staff members to work by holding out threats or punishment such as reprimands, disciplinary actions, demotion, loss of job, dismissal from the post, deduction of salary, group rejection. Any kind of deterioration may be included in negative motivation.

Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

There are several Human Motivation Theories propounded by many learned authorities. Some of the motivation theories and the name of the propounders are given below:

The expectancy theory - Victor H. Vroom

Equity theory - J. Stacy Adams

Reinforcement theory - B.E Skinner

Need theory of motivation - David C. McClelland

Two-factor theory - Frederick Herzberg

The hierarchy of need theory - Abraham Maslow

From among above mentioned theories, the hierarchy of need theory, which is also called as Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory is most popular, well known and widely accepted theory. This theory is propounded by Abraham Maslow and it based on the need of people which appears in a distinct way. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to highest. Lower ordered needs are experienced first which must be satisfied before higher ordered needs are perceived.

Maslow’s theory is based on the following assumptions:

  • Unlimited wants:

    Humans wants are unlimited and never ending. As soon as one of his wants is satisfied, another appears in its place. Again, to satisfy another wants, a man engages himself in work.The unsatisfied need is a motivator:If needs are satisfied, man will lose his willingness to work and his capacity too. So, it is the only unsatisfied need which may encourage or motivate the staff to perform the job.
  • Hierarchy of importance:

    Among the human needs, one can easily ascertain the most important to less important needs. It means need can be classified according to priority and they can be arranged in priority according to hierarchy of importance. Maslow opinions that needs can be satisfied on a priority basis.

The basic human needs to be placed by Maslow in an ascending order of importance can be illustrated as:

.

Fig: Maslow's needs hierarchy theory

(source:www.tutor2u.net)

  • Physiological needs:

    The physiological needs are the primary or basic needs for food, water, air, clothing and shelter that are present in all human and must be satisfied before the individual can consider higher order needs. A hungry person, possessed by the need to obtain food, ignores other needs. Once the physiological needs are satisfied, other needs enter. A labor may feel physiological needs and he may be worried to satisfy them. In an organization, these needs are generally satisfied by providing adequate salary, wages and other allowances and benefits. Besides, an organization also provides work environment.
  • Safety or security needs:

    The second level safety needs include security, protection from physical harm and avoidance of the unexpected risk of loss. Virtually, these needs are concerned with physical safety and economic security. These needs may be like saving accounts, life insurance, membership of health club, old age provision, security from risks, etc.
  • Social needs:

    The man is a social animal . He lives in a society, love society, believes in society, learns from society and gets from society. Being social, he gains experiences from the society and thus feels some needs- the acquired needs in his life. These needs include belonging needs, friendship, love and affection, association and social acceptance. Satisfaction of physiological and safety needs to this third hierarchy of needs- the desire to be accepted by members of the family and other individual in groups. The manager should know these needs and manage well to motivate the employees.
  • Esteem or egoistic needs:

    The higher or egoistic needs are more prevalent in developed countries, where per capita income is high and people there have sufficient means to satisfy their basic needs and to concentrate on the desire for status, esteem, and ego. These needs are of two types:
    • Self-esteem: Self-esteem means esteem in the eye of self which is self-confidence and self-respect.
    • Public esteem: Public esteem means esteem or image in the eye of public as praise, power, prestige, appreciation, recognition, etc. These all needs are concerned with once prestige and respect of an individual.
  • Self-actualization needs:

    The top rung on the ladder of human needs is self-actualization the need for fulfillment, for realizing one’s talents and capabilities totally. These needs are also known as self-prestige, self-achievement, and self-confidence. These self-actualization needs are most difficult to the manager to identify and focus. A manager, in the case, simply can help the employees providing challenging job of one’s interest and capacity and allowing risk-taking decision making. Thus, they may help the employees to achieve one’s self –prestige and self-confidence. If he is satisfied in this stage, it may enable him to realize fully the potentialities of his talents and capabilities.

The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be broadly classified into two groups:

  • Lower- order needs: In this category of needs physiological and safety needs can be well labeled.
  • Higher order needs: Maslow’s rest of needs such as social, self-esteem and self-actualization needs can be labeled and placed on high order needs.

Refernces

Sharma, P., Shrestha, A., Pant, H., Gautam, I., Thapa, R. B., & Upadhyay, P. (2011). Buddha Publication.

Poudyal, Santosh Raj et.al., Business Studies-XII, Asmita Book Publication, Kathmandu

Bhandari, Kedar Prasad, Business Studies-XII, Bundipuran Prakashan, Kathmandu

The hierarchy of need theory, which is also called as Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory is most popular, well known and widely accepted theory.

The motivation can be classified mainly into four groups and they are: 

  • -Financial and non-financial motivation
  • -Individual and group motivation
  • -Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • -Positive and negative motivation

 

The Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can be broadly classified into two groups:

  • - Lower- order needs: In this category of needs physiological and safety needs can be well labeled.
  • - Higher order needs: Maslow’s rest of needs such as social, self-esteem and self-actualization needs can be labeled and placed on high order needs.
.

Very Short Questions

Positive Motivation:

Positive motivation is that process of attempting to influence the behavior of employees through the possibility of reward. Positive motivation is virtually a kind of technique to inspire the subordinates. In this motivation, the management provides financial and non-financial incentives for the satisfaction of all kinds of primary and secondary needs which positively inspires employees to show their best performance. It is concerned with the incentives such as an increase in salary, allowances, benefits, provision of promotion, rewards, and others; achievement such as praise, encouragement, acceptance by group and respect by the management. Positive motivation may be financial or non-financial or individual or group motivation.

Negative Motivation:

Negative motivation is the method of motivating the employees by using different tools like fear, threats, power and punishment. Employees are motivated to work and complete the assignment as desired due to the fear that they have to consequence or avoid. The tools used in negative motivation are reprimands, disciplinary actions, demotion, loss of job, dismissal from the post, deduction of salary, group rejection. Any kind of deterioration may be included in negative motivation.

 

Physiological needs: Physiological needs are also known as basic and primary needs. These needs are common to all individuals. These needs involve food, cloth, shelter, sex and so on. These needs are related to survival and maintenance of human life. Physiological needs are mentioned at the lower level in the hierarchy of needs. These needs are addressed by providing appropriate wage with sound working environment.

Security/Safety needs: People  the employees seek economical security or security of job when basic needs are fulfilled. These needs are mentioned in the second level in the hierarchy of Maslow's motivation theory. Security needs involve the security of job, security old age pension provision, protection against unexpected events, insurance and so on.

0%

DISCUSSIONS ABOUT THIS NOTE

No discussion on this note yet. Be first to comment on this note