Techniques of Motivation
Techniques of Motivation
The various theories of motivation provide managers with a number of effective concepts of motivating employees. Hence, management can employ a variety of techniques to motivate employees. Some important techniques are as follows:
- Quality of Working Life (QWL)
- Job Enrichment
- Behavior Modification
Most managers have tended to place money high on the scale of motivators but behavioral scientist places it low. Probably neither view is right. However, money continues to be an important motivator at least in underdeveloped countries where physiological needs of employees are only partially satisfied. Even in developed countries, monetary incentives do result in greater productivity. Money is the crucial incentive to work motivation. As a medium of exchange, it is the vehicle by which employees can purchase the numerous needs satisfying things they desire. Many studies reaffirm that for the vast majority of the workers, a regular paycheck is absolutely necessary in order to meet their basic physiological and safety needs.
Some writers have pointed out money is often more than a monetary value which can also mean status or power. Hence, an attraction of getting more money such as more pay, bonuses, allowances, provision of insurance etc.is a powerful motivator to employees for high performance. At present, most managers agree that if money to act as a motivator the prospective payment should be large relative to a person’s income. If it is not large enough to be felt, it is not likely to be a motivator. It may keep the person from being dissatisfied. Thus, money can motivate people.
The another technique of employee motivation is the participation. Participation means the physical and mental involvement of people in activities. Participation encourages and permits contributions to decisions, goal and plans along with suggestions for implementation. It is also a means of recognition. Most people are motivated when they are consulted on action affecting them.
The underlying assumption of employee motivation through participation are:
- People derived satisfaction from being a part of the management.
- It increases the responsibility of the participants.
- It fosters greater acceptance to change.
- It provides the feeling of belonging, recognition and above all accomplishments, and
- In addition, it encourages better decisions making, accepts responsibility, promotes teamwork and emphasizes the use of creativity.
Motivation theories and increasing researchers have increased the awareness and use of participation in the organization. Japanese managers allow their workers to participate in must of the decision-making and grant them considerable freedom over a day to day work methodology. Because of the high degree of success enjoyed by Japanese firms in recent times, this is becoming increasing popular in Western too.
Quality of Working Life (QWL)
One of the most interesting techniques to motivation is the quality of working life program. The quality of working life is an attempt to integrate employee needs and well-being with the intention of improving productivity, greater employee involvement, and higher levels of job satisfaction through a formal program. It is more concerned with overall climate of work. It is a system approach to job designs and job enrichment combined with a socio-technical systems approach to management.
Job design is the application of motivational concepts to the design of the work in order to improve both worker productivity and job satisfaction, job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment.
QWL has received enthusiastic support from a number of sources. Managers have regarded it as a promising means of dealing with stagnating productivity. Workers and union representatives have also seen it as means of justifying higher pay.
The practical contribution of Herzberg’s theory is a motivational technique known as job enrichment. Managers support this technique as a solution to the problem of the quality of life at work. The major assumption of this theory is that in order to motivate employees the job must be designed to provide an opportunity for achievement , recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth. Thus, the job is enriched so that these factors are included. To be specific, a job is enriched when the nature of the job is challenging and creative.
Basically, job enrichment occurs by increasing a job’s range and depth. Job range refers to the number of activities performed on the job while job depth refers to the autonomy, responsibility, and discretion or control over the job. Job enrichment vertically loads the job. On the other hand, job enlargement means that a job’s range, but not necessarily its depth, is increased. Research has indicated that job enrichment factors result in higher satisfaction and lower boredom and absenteeism.
Job enrichment gives the worker more authority and more control over the job situation. The worker is allowed to plan, schedule, and inspect own work activities. It incorporates high-level motivation factors in the work such as achievement, responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth and development. Companies that have introduced programs of job enrichment claim that productivity was increased, absenteeism and turnover were reduced. A job may be enriched through following ways:
- By giving workers more freedom in deciding about such things such as work methods, sequence, and pace of the work.
- By encouraging participation and interaction among workers.
- By giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility for their tasks.
- By giving employees feedback on their job performance before supervisor supervises.
Behavior modification is a management technique for applying the concepts of reinforcement theory in organizational settings. Advocates of behavior modification, such as B.F Skinner, argue that people are basically passive and reactive instead of proactive. Hence, they tend to respond to stimuli rather than initiating behavior. They emphasize that this technique focuses on observable and measurable behavior rather than unobserved needs, attitudes or goals. In addition, behavior modification emphasizes permanent change that can be caused only through reinforcement. Generally, it uses positive reinforcement to motivate employees to engage in desired behaviors. Behavior modification technique consists of following fundamental steps:
- Define and specify an acceptable level of behavior. This must be outlined in objective and measurable terms.
- Conduct performance audit.
- Set specific behavior goals for each employee.
- Employees keep a record of their own work. This record provides continuous feedback directly to the employees.
- Supervisors praise employees for the more positive performance. Provide the employees with sufficient reinforcement to shape their behavior and keep them on target.
Sharma, P., Shrestha, A., Pant, H., Gautam, I., Thapa, R. B., & Upadhyay, P. (2011). Buddha Publication.
Poudyal, Santosh Raj et.al., Business Studies-XII, Asmita Book Publication, Kathmandu
Bhandari, Kedar Prasad, Business Studies-XII, Bundipuran Prakashan, Kathmandu
The important techniques of motivation are as follows:
- - Money
- - Participation
- - Quality of Working Life (QWL)
- - Job Enrichment
- - Behavior Modification
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